Swartkrans - Member 1: Early/Lower Pleistocene, South Africa

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
unclassified
Chyrsochloridae indet.
49 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Dendromurinae
Dendromys cf. antiquus
5 individuals
Gastropoda - Achatinidae
cf. Achatina sp. Lamarck 1799
15 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: mak - replaced genus name sp. with family name, species name "Achatidae" pulled in favor of sp.
Reptilia
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768
2 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Lacertilia
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768
11 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Reptilia
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768
26 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Chelonia
Reptilia - Avetheropoda
Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758
214 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Aves
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Phasianidae
Phasianidae indet. Horsfield 1821
ETE occurrence; species: Francolin
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Plataleidae
Plataleidae indet. Bonaparte 1838
2 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: ibis
Mammalia
Mammalia indet. Linnaeus 1758
98 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Mammalia
Mammalia indet. Linnaeus 1758
141 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Carnivora
Mammalia indet. Linnaeus 1758
11 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hyracoidea
Mammalia indet. Linnaeus 1758
74 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Lagomorpha
Mammalia - Primates - Cercopithecidae
Cercopithecidae indet. Gray 1821
8 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: papionid
Cercopithecidae indet. Gray 1821
287 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Cercopithecidae
Papio robinsoni Freedman 1957
119 specimens
Theropithecus oswaldi (Andrews 1916)
1 specimen
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: danieli
Parapapio jonesi Broom 1940
28 specimens
Papio (Dinopithecus) ingens Broom 1937
cf. Cercopithecoides sp. Mollett 1947
1 specimen
Mammalia - Primates - Hominidae
Hominidae indet. Gray 1825
15 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hominidae
Australopithecus robustus Broom 1938
1 specimen
recombined as Paranthropus robustus
Homo sp. Linnaeus 1758
2 specimens
Mammalia - Rodentia - Nesomyidae
Mystromys sp. Wagner 1841
57 individuals
Mystromys hausleitneri
24 individuals
Malacothrix cf. typica
2 individuals
Mammalia - Rodentia - Muridae
Lemniscomys sp. Trouessart 1881
5 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: sp.nov.-Swartkrans
Mus cf. minutoides
16 individuals
Mus cf. triton
1 individual
Otomys gracilis
9 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: subgen.Palaeotomys
Steatomys cf. pratensis Peters 1846
2 individuals
Tatera sp. Lataste 1882
6 individuals
Tatera robinsoni
3 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: sp.nov.-Swartkrans
Dasymys cf. bolti
1 individual
Mammalia - Rodentia - Cricetidae
Cricetidae indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1817
47 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Rodenta/Myomorpha
Mammalia - Rodentia - Castoridae
cf. Palaeomys gracilis
23 individuals
Mammalia - Rodentia - Bathyergidae
Cryptomys robertsi
2 individuals
Cryptomys sp. Gray 1964
5 individuals
Mammalia - Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix cf. makapanensis
1 specimen
Hystrix africaeaustralis Peters 1852
19 specimens
Mammalia - Ierboidae
Pedetes sp. Illiger 1811
5 specimens
Mammalia - Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758
1 individual
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: sp.nov.-Swartkrans
Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equidae indet. Gray 1821
31 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Equidae
Hipparion libycum Pomel 1897
1 specimen
recombined as Eurygnathohippus libycum
Hipparion libycum Pomel 1897
8 specimens
recombined as Eurygnathohippus libycum
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: steytlieri
Equus capensis Broom 1909
17 specimens
Mammalia - Soricidae
Soricidae indet. Fischer 1814
50 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Soricidae
Mammalia - Carnivora - Mustelidae
Aonyx capensis (Schinz 1821)
6 specimens
Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae
Canidae indet. Fischer 1817
6 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: canidae
Vulpes pulcher
2 specimens
Canis cf. mesomelas Schreber 1775
55 specimens
Canis mesomelas Schreber 1775
9 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: pappos
Mammalia - Carnivora - Felidae
Megantereon sp. Croizet and Jobert 1828
1 specimen
Felis serval Schreber 1776
1 specimen
recombined as Caracal serval
Felis caracal Schreber 1776
1 specimen
recombined as Caracal caracal
Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758)
2 specimens
Panthera pardus (Linnaeus 1758)
77 specimens
Dinofelis sp. Zdansky 1924
4 specimens
Mammalia - Carnivora - Viverridae
Viverridae indet. Gray 1821
5 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: mongoose
Mammalia - Carnivora - Herpestidae
Herpestes ichneumon (Linnaeus 1758)
2 specimens
Mammalia - Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Hyaenidae indet. Gray 1821
37 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hyaenidae
Hyaenictis forfex
3 specimens
Hyaena brunnea Thunberg 1820
1 specimen
    = Parahyaena brunnea Thunberg 1820
Werdelin and Turner 1996
Hyaena brunnea Thunberg 1820
7 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: dispar
    = Parahyaena brunnea Thunberg 1820
Werdelin and Turner 1996
Proteles sp. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1824
2 specimens
Proteles transvaalensis
2 specimens
Chasmaporthetes nitidula
3 specimens
Euryboas nitidula
5 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: A-Swartkrans(prim)
    = Chasmaporthetes nitidula
McKenna and Bell 1997
Euryboas nitidula
9 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: B-Swartkrans(Adv)
    = Chasmaporthetes nitidula
McKenna and Bell 1997
Euryboas nitidula
4 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: uncertain_Swartkrans
    = Chasmaporthetes nitidula
McKenna and Bell 1997
Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben 1777)
8 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: ultra
Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben 1777)
2 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: venustula
Mammalia - Tubulidentata - Orycteropodidae
Orycteropus afer (Pallas 1766)
1 specimen
Mammalia - Proboscidea - Elephantidae
cf. Elephas sp. Linnaeus 1758
3 specimens
Mammalia - Hyracoidea - Procaviidae
Procavia antiqua Broom 1934
242 specimens
Procavia transvaalensis Shaw 1937
66 specimens
Mammalia - Macroscelidea - Macroscelididae
Elephantulus sp. Thomas and Schwann 1906
12 individuals
Elephantulus langi
4 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: subgen.Elephantomys
Elephantulus cf. brachyrhynchus
2 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: mak - subgenus name taken from unique name field
Mammalia - Chrysochloridae
Amblysomus spelea
ETE occurrence; species: subgen.Chlorotalpa
Mammalia - Ungulata - Suidae
Suidae indet. Gray 1821
9 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Suidae
Metridiochoerus andrewsi Hopwood 1926
12 specimens
cf. Tapinochoerus meadowsi
2 specimens
synonym of Metridiochoerus
Phacochoerus sp. Cuvier 1826
3 specimens
Mammalia - Ungulata - Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus sp. Linnaeus 1758
14 specimens
Mammalia - Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
12 individuals
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Murinae
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
94 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: alcelaphine-med.
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
103 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae size I
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
602 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae Size II
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
661 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae Size III
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
47 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae Size IV
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
4 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Antil./Neotragini
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
18 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: alcelaphine
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821
2660 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae
Syncerus sp. Hodgson 1847
16 specimens
Tragelaphus cf. strepsiceros (Pallas 1766)
12 specimens
cf. Makapania sp. Wells and Cooke 1957
10 specimens
Oreotragus cf. major
1 specimen
Oreotragus oreotragus (Zimmermann 1783)
1 specimen
Raphicerus campestris (Thunberg 1811)
4 specimens
original and current combination Antilope campestris
Antidorcas sp. Sundevall 1847
2 specimens
Antidorcas australis (Hendey and Hendey 1968)
22 specimens
original and current combination Antidorcas marsupialis australis
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: or marsupialis
cf. Gazella sp. Blaineville 1816
17 specimens
cf. Megalotragus sp. van Hoepen 1932
8 specimens
Beatragus sp. Heller 1912
13 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: or Alcelaphus
Damaliscus sp. Sclater and Thomas 1894
15 specimens
Damaliscus sp. Sclater and Thomas 1894
8 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: 121-Swartkrans
Rabaticeras porrocornutus
2 specimens
synonym of Numidocapra
Connochaetes sp. (Lichtenstein 1812)
54 specimens
cf. Connochaetes sp. (Lichtenstein 1812)
70 specimens
Hippotragini indet. Sundevall 1845
1 specimen
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hippotragini
Pelea cf. capreolus (Forster 1790)
2 specimens
original and current combination Antilopa capreolus
Redunca cf. arundinum (Boddaert 1785)
1 specimen
original and current combination Antilope arundinum
Amphibia
Amphibia indet. Linnaeus 1758
75 specimens
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: frog/toad
unclassified
Antidorcas cf. recki (Schwartz 1932)
12 specimens
original and current combination Adenota recki
see common names

Geography
Country:South Africa
Coordinates: 26.0° South, 27.7° East (view map)
Paleocoordinates:26.2° South, 27.5° East
Geographic resolution:local area
Time
Period:Quaternary Epoch:Pleistocene
10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 6
*Period:Tertiary - Quaternary *Epoch:Pliocene - Pleistocene
Key time interval:Early/Lower Pleistocene
Age range of interval:2.58800 - 0.78100 m.y. ago
* legacy (obsolete) database fields
Stratigraphy
Geological group:Transvaal Formation:Swartkrans Member:11
Stratigraphy comments: ETE dating method: composite, ETE age comment: age=Pleistocene=approx. 1.7 my based on hominid and faunal evidence
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology: breccia
Lithology description: ETE rock type adj: breccia, ETE lithology comments: Matrix is secondary calcified reddish brown sandy silt, flowstone interlaminations , lenticular beds, travertine, brecc.
Environment:wet floodplain
Geology comments: ETE sed env 1: ., ETE sed env 2: . ETE event: ., ETE env comment: repeated mudfl. resulting from soil run off
Taphonomy
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:bulk,selective quarrying,surface (float)
Collection size:6626 specimens
Reason for describing collection:general faunal/floral analysis
Collection method comments: ETE Size: both; ETE reference list: 478, ; ETE museum list: TM
Metadata
Also known as:ETE Locality 642, Orange Breccia, Pink Breccia
Database number:21824
Authorizer:A. Behrensmeyer, A. Turner, R. Potts Enterer:A. Behrensmeyer, H. O'Regan, J. Damuth, R. Potts
Modifier:J. Alroy
Created:1995-10-17 00:00:00 Last modified:2017-05-23 16:34:15
Access level:the public Released:1995-10-17 00:00:00
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

4896.ETE 607C. K. Brain. 1994. The Swartkrans Palaeontological Research Project in perspective: results and conclusions. South African Journal of Science 90:220-223 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/M. Kosnik]

Secondary references:

7584 M. C. McKenna and S. K. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level 1-640 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]
10899PACED L. Werdelin and A. Turner. 1996. The fossil and living Hyaenidae of Africa: present status. in K. M. Stewart and K.L. Semour (eds.) Palaeoecology and palaeoenvironments of Late Cenozoic mammals: Tributes to the career of C.S. (Rufus) Churcher. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 637-659 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]