USGS 10991 - Courbaril Member, Point Courbaril: Early/Lower Pliocene, Trinidad and Tobago

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Bivalvia - Arcida - Arcidae
Anadara (Anadara) inaequilateralis (Maury 1917)
Anadara (Cunearca) filicata
Lunarca billingsiana (Maury 1912)
Bivalvia - Arcida - Noetiidae
Noetia (Noetia) sheldoniana (Maury 1912)
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Pectinidae
Aequipecten (Plagioctenium) sp. (Dall 1898)
synonym of Argopecten
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia simplex d'Orbigny 1845
Bivalvia - Pholadida - Corbulidae
Juliacorbula aequivalvis (Philippi 1836)
Caryocorbula (Caryocorbula) helenae
Caryocorbula (Caryocorbula) sp. Gardner 1926
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama cf. macerophylla Gmelin 1791
[entered as Chama macrophylla]
    = Chama cf. macerophylla Gmelin 1791
Rosenberg 2005
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Veneridae
Chione (Nioche) veatchiana Maury 1912
Chione (Lirophora) sanctidavidis
original and current combination Lirophora
Dosinia (Dosinia) sp. Scopoli 1777
Pitar (Lamelliconcha) circinatus
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax striatus
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Tellinidae
Moerella (Moerella) elinguis
spelled with current rank as Tellina (Moerella)
Eurytellina melajoensis
? Eurytellina oligoscissurata
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Semelidae
Abra cf. aequalis (Say 1822)
Cumingia galbensis
Semele aff. anteriocosta Vokes 1938
Semele laevis (Sowerby 1833)
Subspecies: Semele laevis costaricensis
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Cardiidae
Trachycardium (Dallocardia) sanctidavidis
original and current combination Dallocardia
Trigoniocardia (Trigoniocardia) maturensis
Bivalvia - Lucinida - Lucinidae
Lucina (Lucinisca) roigi
original and current combination Lucinisca
Bivalvia - Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
Nuculana (Saccella) ludificans
original and current combination Saccella
Gastropoda - Epitoniidae
Epitonium (Epitonium) aff. foliaceicostatum
Epitonium (Epitonium) humphreysi
Gastropoda - Triphoridae
Triphora guppyi
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Olividae
Olivella (Minioliva) fundarugata
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
Anachis (Costoanachis) obesa (Adams 1845)
recombined as Parvanachis obesa
Strombina (Sincola) crassilabrum (Guppy 1874)
recombined as Sincola (Sincola) crassilabrum
Anachis (Anachis) asphaltoda
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassarius galbanus
Nassarius (Uzita) trinitatensis Jung 1969
Nassarius (Phrontis) vibex (Say 1822)
recombined as Nassarius (Nassarius) vibex
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
Prunum (Prunum) dallianum (Maury 1912)
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Cymia brightoniana Maury 1925
recombined as Cymia (Cymia) brightoniana
Murex (Chicoreus) cf. brevifrons (Lamarck 1822)
    = Chicoreus (Triplex) cornurectus Guppy 1876
Landau and Marques da Silva 2010
Thais (Stramonita) cf. haemostoma (Linnaeus 1767)
Risomurex galbensis
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
Ithycythara sp. Woodring 1928
Gastropoda - Naticidae
Natica (Naticarius) aff. canrena (Linnaeus 1758)
recombined as Naticarius canrena
Gastropoda - Calyptraeidae
Calyptraea centralis (Conrad 1841)
Gastropoda - Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
Cerithium harrisi
Bittium (Bittiolum) fretense
original and current combination Bittiolum
Gastropoda - Neritidae
Neritina (Vitta) cf. virginia (Linnaeus 1758)
recombined as Neritina virginea
Gastropoda - Architectonicidae
Architectonica (Pseudotorinia) cf. semidecussata
original and current combination Pseudotorinia
Gastropoda - Fissurellidae
Diodora cavenensis
Scaphopoda - Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Dentalium (Dentalium) divulgatum
see common names

Country:Trinidad and Tobago
Coordinates: 10.2° North, 61.6° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:10.2° North, 60.9° West
Basis of coordinate:based on nearby landmark
Geographic resolution:outcrop
Period:Neogene Epoch:Pliocene
Stage:Zanclean 10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 6
Key time interval:Early/Lower Pliocene
Age range of interval:5.33300 - 3.60000 m.y. ago
Formation:Morne l'Enfer Member:Courbaril
Local section:Point Galba
Regional section:Brighton
Stratigraphic resolution:bed
Stratigraphy comments: Collection is from the Courbaril Sand and Clay Member of the Upper Morne l'Enfer Formation. The Courbaril fauna is considered to be of early Pliocene age and is probably slightly older than the Matura fauna.
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology: poorly lithified sandstone
Secondary lithology: claystone
Includes fossils?Y
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: Poor reporting of lithologies. Named as the "Courbaril Sand and Clay Member", so these lithologies are assigned.
Geology comments: The assemblage as a whole points to a nearshore environment, with some brackish influence (compared with Melajo Clay assemblages).
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:good
Collection methods and comments
Collection excludes:some macrofossils,some microfossils
Collection methods:selective quarrying,field collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Museum repositories:PRI,USNM
Collection method comments: All material descibed in this report is reposited in the Naturhistorisches Mueum, Basel, or the USNM. Additional material collection from this unit is found at PRI.
Taxonomic list comments:Exhaustive for Mollusca. Crab claws, corals, fish teeth, and scarce foraminifera also exist in the unit, though are not listed. Van de Bold (1963) also lists ostracords from several localities.
Database number:60409
Authorizer:A. Hendy Enterer:A. Hendy
Modifier:A. Hendy Research group:marine invertebrate
Collections that are a subset of this one:60644, 60646, 60647, 60649, 60650, 60651, 60652, 60653, 60654, 60655
Created:2006-05-14 13:13:07 Last modified:2013-11-25 13:37:23
Access level:the public Released:2006-05-14 13:13:07
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

17317. P. Jung. 1969. Miocene and Pliocene mollusks from Trinidad. Bulletins of American Paleontology 55(247):293-697 [A. Miller/A. Hendy]

Secondary references:

36423 B. Landau and C. Marques da Silva. 2010. Early Pliocene gastropods of Cubagua, Venezuela: Taxonomy, palaeobiogeography and ecostratigraphy. Palaeontos 19:1-221 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]
19419 G. Rosenberg. 2005. Malacolog 4.0: A database of Western Atlantic marine Mollusca. [WWW database (version 4.1.0)] URL [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]