Tiupampa site 1, the “quarry” (Paleocene of Bolivia)

Where: Mizque, Bolivia (18.0° S, 65.6° W: paleocoordinates 20.7° S, 52.5° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Tiupampan mammal zone, Santa Lucía Formation, Danian (66.0 - 61.6 Ma)

• said to be 125 m above base of El Molino Formation at Tiupampa and Maastrichtian (Marshall et al. 1983) but actually from "between 110 and 140 m above the base of the Santa Lucia Formation" (Muizon and Marshall 1992)

•"The Tiupampa mammals occur in the middle section of the Santa Lucia Formation (Marshall et al. 1997). This section has been referred to the early Palaeocene by Gayet et al. (1992), Bonaparte et al. (1993), and Muizon (1998). However, an early late Palaeocene age has been suggested by Marshall et al. (1997) and Pascual & Ortiz-Jaureguizar (2007). Recently, Gelfo et al. (2009) have reassessed the age of the Tiupampa mammal fauna and concluded that it is of early Palaeocene age. The Tiupampa mammal-bearing beds are regarded by these authors as a probable equivalent of the late Puercan (Pu3) of North America and would therefore be as old as 64 to 64.5 Ma. This hypothesis is based on the fact that the Tiupampa mammal-bearing beds are included in a single reversed stratigraphic series, which is likely to correspond to Chron 28r (see Gelfo et al. 2009 for discussion). However, when Gelfo et al. (2009) wrote their paper, the reference for calibration of Chron 28r was Lofgren et al. (2004), and the correlation was with the late Puercan (Pu3). New dates and calibration of the NALMAs have slightly modified the age and position of Chron 28r. According to Wilson (2013, 2014) and Sprain et al. (2014) Chron 28r is totally included in the base of the early Torrejonian (To1) and its absolute age is bracketed between c. 65 Ma and 64.866. This represents the very base of the early Torrejonian (To1), which spans from 65.118 Ma to c. 63.5 Ma. In other words, the absolute age for the Tiupampa fauna is c. 65 Ma." (Muizon et al. 2015)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected in 1982-1988, 1998

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, surface (float), sieve,

• Centro de Tecnologia Petrolera (CTP) and Museo de Historia Natural de Cochabamba (MNHN) collections

•initial collections were made between 1982 and 1988 and were recovered "by surface prospecting, quarrying, and screen washing" (Muizon and Marshall 1992)

Primary reference: L. G. Marshall, C. De Muizon, and B. Sigé. 1983. Late Cretaceous mammals (Marsupalia) from Bolivia. Géobios 16(6):739-745 [J. Alroy/J. Wertheim/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 13501: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Jill Wertheim on 09.04.2002, edited by John Alroy, Mark Uhen, Roger Benson, Philip Mannion, Richard Butler and Jelle Zijlstra

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• includes material from at least two localities and probably more, but apparently only one major quarry (Locality 1)
unclassified
  -
Actinopteri
 Salmoniformes - Enchodontidae
Enchodus oliveirai5 Maury 1930
 Acanthomorphata - Percichthyidae
cf. Percichthys sp.5 Girard 1854
 Siluriformes - Ictaluridae
Ictaluridae indet.5 Gill 1861 catfish
New genus
 Characiformes -
cf. Miletes sp.5 Heckel 1849
 Characiformes - Erythrinidae
cf. Hoplias sp.5 Gill 1903
 Characiformes -
cf. Rhodsia sp.5 Fowler 1911
 Osteoglossiformes - Osteoglossidae
cf. Phareodus sp.5 Leidy 1873 arowana
 Hiodontiformes - Hiodontidae
cf. Eohiodon sp.5 Cavender 1966
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus sp.8 de Lacepède 1803 gar
Osteichthyes
 Gymnophiona -
Gymnophiona indet.10 Rafinesque 1814 caecilian
YPFB Pal 6103
 Salientia -
"Estesius boliviensis n. gen. n. sp." = Estesiella boliviensis1
"Estesius boliviensis n. gen. n. sp." = Estesiella boliviensis1 Baez 1995 frog
Reptilia
 Testudines - Podocnemidae
Podocnemis ? brasiliensis5 Staesche 1937 river turtle
 Testudines - Podocnemidoidae
? Roxochelys cf. vilavilensis5 de Broin 1971 sideneck turtle
 Loricata -
Sebecosuchia indet.5 Colbert 1946 crocodilian
 Crocodylia -
Crocodylia indet.5 crocodilian
 Loricata - Dyrosauridae
Dyrosauridae indet.7 de Steffano 1903 crocodilian
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Iguanidae indet.5 Oppel 1811 lizard
 Squamata -
Coniophis sp.5 Marsh 1892 snake
 Squamata - Boidae
Boidae "sp. 1"5 Gray 1825 boa
Boidae "sp. 2"5 Gray 1825 boa
Boidae "sp. 3"5 Gray 1825 boa
 Squamata -
Kataria anisodonta n. gen. n. sp.11
Kataria anisodonta n. gen. n. sp.11 Scanferla et al. 2013 snake
MHNC 13323 - holotype (an articulated incomplete skull consisting of a left vomer, incomplete left septomaxilla, left maxilla, left ectopterygoid, left palatine, the anterior tip of the left pterygoid, left postorbital, both frontals, parietal, and parasphenoid rostrum)
Mammalia
 Cimolesta - Cimolestidae
cf. Cimolestes sp.8 Marsh 1889 eutherian
YPFB Pal 6131 (left M2?)
 Eutheria -
cf. Henricosborniidae indet.9 Roth 1903 notoungulate
Broken upper molar.
 Condylarthra - Hyopsodontidae
Pucanodus gagnieri3, Tiuclaenus robustus n. sp.3, Tiuclaenus cotasi n. sp.3, "Tiuclaenus minutus n. gen. n. sp." = Tiuclaenus minutus3, "Kollpania tiupampina n. gen. n. sp." = Tiuclaenus minutus8, Simoclaenus sylvaticus3, Molinodus suarezi3
Pucanodus gagnieri3 Muizon and Marshall 1991 condylarth
MHNC 1230, fragment of right dentary with c, p2-m1; MHNC 1235, fragment of right dentary with p4-m1; MHNC 1242, fragment of left maxilla with P3-4 (referred to cf. Mimatuta by Muizon & Marshall 1991); MHNC 1265, left M2; MHNC 1267, right M2; MHNC 1268, right M1; MHNC 1269, left M2; MHNC 1271, right M3; MHNC 1272, right M3; MHNC 8271, fragment of maxilla with M1-2; MHNC 8338, left P3; MHNC 8340, right M1
Tiuclaenus robustus n. sp.3 de Muizon and Cifelli 2000 condylarth
MHNC 1233 - type (left dentary fragment with m2-3); hypodigm: MHNC 1234, right dentary fragment with m1-2; MHNC 1246, right lower p3; MHNC 1264, right M2; MHNC 1266, right maxilla fragment with P3-4; MHNC 8331, left M3 (lacking the labial edge of the para- and metacones)
Tiuclaenus cotasi n. sp.3 de Muizon and Cifelli 2000 condylarth
MHNC 1231 - type (a left mandible fragment with p3-m3); hypodigm: MHNC 1232, left dentary fragment with m3; MHNC 1235, partial right dentary with p4-m1; MHNC 1251, right m3; MHNC 1253, right dentary fragment with p3-4; MHNC 1254, right dentary fragment with m3; MHNC 1255, right m1; MHNC 1256, left m2; MHNC 1257, right M3; MHNC 1259, right m1; MHNC 1262, left m3; MHNC 1263, left m1; MHNC 1267, right M1, incomplete; MNHC, 1270, right M2 lacking the protocone; MHNC 1271, right M3; MHNC 1272, right M3; MHNC 8272, mandible fragment with m2; MHNC 8273, left dentary with p4-m3; MHNC 8336, left m1; MHNC 8341, right maxilla with P2-M2; MHNC 8342, left M2; MHNC 8347, left P4
"Tiuclaenus minutus n. gen. n. sp." = Tiuclaenus minutus3 Muizon and Marshall 1987 condylarth
YPFB Pal 6115 - holotype (a left dentary with alveoli of i1 and i3, i2, c, alveolus of p1 and p2-m3); hypodigm: YPFB Pal 6119, maxilla fragment with M3; MHNC 1240, right maxilla fragment with M1-3 [referred by Muizon & Marshall (1991) to Pucanodus gagnieri]; MHNC 1253, dentary fragment with p3-p4, MHNC 1250 a left m2; MHNC 1252, left m3; MHNC 1258, right M1; MHNC 8334, left m2 lacking anterior part of paraand protoconids; MHNC 8335, left m3, MHNC 8346, left M1 lacking the enamel of para- and metacones
"Kollpania tiupampina n. gen. n. sp." = Tiuclaenus minutus8 Muizon and Marshall 1987 condylarth
YPFB Pal 6135 - holotype (upper left M4?)
Simoclaenus sylvaticus3 de Muizon and Cifelli 2000 condylarth
MHNC 8348, a right maxilla with M1 lacking the parastylar region and part of the paracone and M2-3 complete
Molinodus suarezi3 Muizon and Marshall 1987 condylarth
YPFB Pal 6113, partial right dentary with m1-2 and m3 erupting; YPFB Pal 6114, partial right dentary with m2-3; YPFB Pal 6117, left M1, YPFB Pal 6118, right M2 with apices of proto-, para-, and metacone broken; MHNC 1238, right m1; MHNC 1243, partial right dentary with root of c, alveolus of p1, and p2; MHNC 1244, left p4; MHNC 1245 right p4; MHNC 1247, partial right maxilla with P3-M2; MHNC 1248, left M3; MHNC 1261, broken right m1; MNHNC 8269, partial left dentary with m1-3; MHNC 8274, right mandible fragment with dp4, m1; MHNC 8280, a partial maxilla with dP4, M1-2; MHNC 8329, worn right M1; MHNC 8330, left M1 with broken protocone
 Amblypoda - Alcidedorbignyidae
Alcidedorbignya inopinata n. gen. n. sp.6
Alcidedorbignya inopinata n. gen. n. sp.6 de Muizon and Marshall 1992 pantodont
YPFB Pal 6121 - holotype (a left maxillary with P4-M3); numerous hypodigm material including MHNC 8372, an almost complete skeleton, which is missing only the left upper incisors, the two i1s, a few phalanges and some carpal and tarsal bones and a few caudal vertebrae; MHNC 8373, a partial skull with complete braincase and mandibles of a very young individual, possibly a near-term foetus or a new-born individual (some postcranial elements are preserved); MHNC 8399, a partial skull with the braincase and basicranium perfectly preserved; the rostrum has been partly weathered and part of the left maxilla and the dorsal bones of the rostrum are missing; the right maxilla and premaxilla and the dentaries are almost complete; the specimen also includes half of the atlas; MHNC 8416, a partial skull (with crushed basicranium but the two petrosals well-preserved) and mandibles of a juvenile individual, with a partial right limb, and some ribs; MHNC 8423 a partial skull and mandibles of a juvenile missing part of the occipital region and bearing right dC, erupting P1s, DP2s-DP4s, erupting M1s; di2s, right di3, dcs, p1s in crypt, dp2s-dp4s, and erupting m1s; MHNC 8400, a left maxilla (with C-M3) with jugal and lacrimal; MHNC 8401 a right maxilla with roots of C-P2 and P3-M3; MHNC 8402, associated left maxilla and dentary, with P1-M3 and p3-m3; MHNC 8403, associated right maxilla and dentary, with C-M3 and right i2-trigonid of m3 and left i1-C; MHNC 8404, left maxilla with P3-M3; MHNC 8405, left maxilla with root of canine and P1-M3; MHNC 8406 left maxilla with root of P2 and P3-M3; MHNC 8407, left maxilla with roots of P4, partial M1 and M2-M3; MHNC 8408, maxilla with P4-M1 and partial M2; MHNC 8409, right dentary with c-m3, MHNC 8410, fragment of left dentary with trigonid of m2 and m3; MHNC 8411, fragment of right dentary with m2-m3; MHNC 8412, fragment of right dentary with m2-m3; MHNC 8413, fragment of left dentary with talonid of m2 and m3; MHNC 8414, left dentary with roots of p3-m1 and weathered m2-m3; MHNC 8415, m3; MHNC 8359; right periotic; MHNC 8360, left periotic; MHNC 8361, right periotic; MHNC 8362, left periotic; MHNC 8419, right periotic; MHNC 8420, right periotic; MHNC 8421, left periotic; MHNC 8422, right periotic (pars cochlearis); MHNC 8423, a sub-complete skull and mandibles of a juvenile, missing most of the occipital and the premaxillae.
 Eutheria -
Proteutheria indet.8 Romer 1966 eutherian
MNHN Vil 121 (left P4)
 Polydolopimorphia - Sillustaniidae
Roberthoffstetteria nationalgeographica n. gen. n. sp. Marshall et al. 1983 metatherian
 Theriiformes - Peradectidae
Peradectes austrinum8 Sige 1971 metatherian
YPFB Pal 6132 (left M3 or M4)
 Theriiformes - Mayulestidae
Mayulestes ferox n. gen. n. sp.2, Allqokirus australis n. gen. n. sp.8
Mayulestes ferox n. gen. n. sp.2 de Muizon 1994 metatherian
MHNC 1249 - holotype (partial skeleton including skull, mandible, 21 vertebrae and most limb bones)
Allqokirus australis n. gen. n. sp.8 Marshall and de Muizon 1988 metatherian
YPFB Pal 6104 - holotype (right maxilla)
 Theriiformes - Jaskhadelphyidae
Jaskhadelphys minutus n. gen. n. sp.8
Jaskhadelphys minutus n. gen. n. sp.8 Marshall and de Muizon 1988 metatherian
YPFB Pal 6195 - holotype (right maxilla)
 Theriiformes - Pucadelphydae
Pucadelphys andinus n. gen. n. sp.8, Andinodelphys cochabambensis n. gen. n. sp.8
Pucadelphys andinus n. gen. n. sp.8 Marshall and de Muizon 1988 metatherian
YPFB Pal 6105 - holotype (complete skull); 35 individuals have been collected, with 22 of these represented by nearly complete skulls and associated postcrania (Ladeveze et al. 2011), including MHNC 8266 (skull)
Andinodelphys cochabambensis n. gen. n. sp.8 Marshall and de Muizon 1988 metatherian
YPFB Pal 6192 - holotype (upper right M4?); six articulated and intertmingled skeletons
 Didelphimorphia - Didelphidae
Incadelphys antiquus n. gen. n. sp.8, Mizquedelphys pilpinensis n. gen. n. sp.9, Tiulordia floresi n. gen. n. sp.8
Incadelphys antiquus n. gen. n. sp.8 Marshall and de Muizon 1988 opossum
YPFB Pal 6251 - holotype (left maxilla)
Mizquedelphys pilpinensis n. gen. n. sp.9 Marshall and de Muizon 1988 opossum
YPFB Pal 6196 - left maxilla (holotype)
Tiulordia floresi n. gen. n. sp.8 Marshall and de Muizon 1988 opossum
YPFB Pal 6191 - holotype (partial right mandible)
 Didelphimorphia -
Didelphoidea indet. Gray 1821 marsupial
"Indeterminate species A" and "Indeterminate species B"
Szalinia gracilis n. gen. n. sp.4 de Muizon and Cifelli 2001 marsupial
 Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
Khasia cordillerensis n. gen. n. sp.8
Khasia cordillerensis n. gen. n. sp.8 Marshall and de Muizon 1988 marsupial
YPFB Pal 6133 - holotype (right M3 or M4)
Osteichthyes
 Ceratodontiformes - Lepidosirenidae
Lepidosiren cf. paradoxa5 Fitzinger 1837 South American lungfish