Panandhro Mine, HD Pit (Eocene of India)

Where: Gujarat, India (23.7° N, 68.7° E: paleocoordinates 6.0° N, 61.8° E)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Panandhro Formation, Lutetian (47.8 - 41.3 Ma)

• "..snake bearing silty shales form part of the Panandhro Formation of Saraswati & Banerjee (1984) or its broadly correlatable unit designated as Naredi Formation by Biswas (1992) (pg. 696)."

•Our previous age inference for these beds (Bajpai and Thewissen, 2002) was based on the traditional inclusion of them in the Naredi Formation, which followed Biswas (1992). Biswas (1992) considered the Naredi Formation to range from late Paleocene to early Eocene in age. While this age estimate may be reasonable at the type section of the formation (where there is neither lignite nor fossil cetaceans), it appears that this is not the case at Panandhro and Akri Lignite Mines. Here, the stratigraphy is more complex and the beds yielding the whales are best included in the Panandhro Formation of Saraswati and Banerjee (1984, preferred here) or the Lakhpat Formation of Mukhopadhyay and Shome (1996). These beds are equivalent in age to the Harudi Formation: middle/late Lutetian. The Domanda Formation of central Pakistan is also Lutetian in age (Gingerich et al., 2001a).

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: mire or swamp; poorly lithified, silty shale

• Locality is a pit within the Panandhro lignite mines.

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: surface (float), mechanical,

Primary reference: S. Bajpai and J. G. M. Thewissen. 2002. Vertebrate fauna from Panandhro lignite field (Lower Eocene), District Kachchh, western India. Current Science 82(5):507-509 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 48074: authorized by Jason Head, entered by Jason Head on 12.03.2005, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Chondrichthyes
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Myliobatis sp. Cuvier 1816 eagle ray
RUSB 301-05, 306
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus sp. Agassiz 1843 mako shark
RUSB 309, isolated tooth
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Carcharhinus balochensis1 requiem shark
RUSB 307, isolated tooth
 Carchariniformes - Triakidae
Galeorhinus sp. de Blainville and Prévost 1816 school shark
Actinopteri
 Siluriformes - Ariidae
Arius sp. Cuvier and Valenciennes 1840 Ariid catfish
RUSB 316, fragmentary skull
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylidae indet. Cuvier 1807 crocodile
RUSB 310-313 (teeth and vertebra)
 Squamata -
Serpentes indet. snake
RUSB 314-15, two vertebrae
 Squamata - Madtsoiidae
Madtsoiidae indet.3 Hoffstetter 1961 snake
Possibly Boidae indet. RUSB 2784-6 and -7, two damaged vertebrae
 Squamata - Palaeophiidae
Pterosphenus sp.3 Lucas 1898 snake
RUSB 2721-58 and -59, 2564-27 to 2564-31, 2784-5, 8 vertebrae
Pterosphenus biswasi n. sp.3 Rage et al. 2003 snake
RUSB 2784-4 (holotype), single trunk vertebra; 2565-1, one vertebra
Pterosphenus kutchensis n. sp.3 Rage et al. 2003 snake
RUSB 2721-1 (holotype), single trunk vertebra; RUSB 2564-1 to 2564-26, 2721-2 to 2721-57, 2784-1 to 2784-3, 85 vertebrae
Mammalia
 Sirenia -
Sirenia indet.2 Illiger 1811 sirenian
  - Remingtonocetidae
Andrewsiphius sloani4 Sahni and Mishra 1972 whale
Kutchicetus minimus4 Bajpai and Thewissen 2000 whale
RUSB 2579, 2589, 2578, 2590, four isolated teeth