Stirone River (Miocene of Italy)

Also known as Torrente Stirone

Where: Italy (44.8° N, 10.0° E: paleocoordinates 44.1° N, 10.6° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Tortonian (11.6 - 7.2 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: Unknown lithostratigraphy and stratigraphic relationships. AGE: Tortonian based on macrofossil biostratigraphy. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: From unknown position within section.

•The holotype was recovered from grey, clayey marls bearing invertebrate fossils indicative of a Tortonian age [200]. According to Artoni et al. [201: fig. 2], the rocks exposed along this section of the river where the specimen was found form part of a middle Eocene– early Tortonian Epiligurian succession incorporated into an “Intra-Messinian Chaotic Unit”. Pending the publication of further data on the exact age of these strata, P. quarantellii is therefore here assumed to be early Tortonian (11.6–9.44 Ma). (Marx & Fordyce, 2015)

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: deep-water; poorly lithified, shelly/skeletal, sandy claystone

• ENVIRONMENT: Deep water, accumulated in gravity debris flow.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Claystone with sandy and fossiliferous lenses. LITHIFICATION:

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: cast, mold/impression

Collected by Marasti

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• COLLECTOR: Presumably the author, R. Marasti. REPOSITORY: Museo Paleontologico Parmense, l'Instituto di Geologia e Paleontologia dell' Universita di Parma.

Primary reference: R. Marasti. 1973. La fauna tortoniana del T. Stirone (limite Parmense-Piacentino). Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 12(1):76-120 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 78437: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 06.02.2008, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Exhaustive for gastropoda, bivalvia, and scaphopoda. NOMENCLATURE: Authoritative publication, with somewhat antiquated nomenclature, but taxonomic assignments at species and subgenus resolution.
unclassified
  -
Bivalvia
 Arcida - Arcidae
"Anadara (Anadara) diluvii" = Scapharca (Scapharca) diluvii Lamarck 1805 clam
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
 Arcida - Limopsidae
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Hinnites ercolanianus, Pecten (Pecten) revolutus, Pecten (Pecten) vigolensis, "Pecten (Amussiopecten) ugolinii" = Flabellipecten ugolinii, "Pecten (Flabellipecten) fraterculus" = Flabellipecten fraterculus, Chlamys (Aquipecten) cf. spinulosa, Chlamys (Aquipecten) labnae, "Chlamys (Aquipecten) scabrella" = Chlamys scabrellus, "Chlamys (Chlamys) multistriata" = Crassadoma multistriata, "Amusium cristatum" = Cristatopecten cristatum
Hinnites ercolanianus Cocconi 1873 scallop
"Pecten (Amussiopecten) ugolinii" = Flabellipecten ugolinii Déperet and Roam 1910 scallop
"Pecten (Flabellipecten) fraterculus" = Flabellipecten fraterculus Sowerby in Smith 1841 scallop
"Chlamys (Aquipecten) scabrella" = Chlamys scabrellus Lamarck 1819 scallop
"Chlamys (Chlamys) multistriata" = Crassadoma multistriata Poli 1795 scallop
"Amusium cristatum" = Cristatopecten cristatum Bronn 1827 scallop
 Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
 Cardiida - Chamidae
"Glans (Centrocardita) aculeata" = Chama aculeata
"Glans (Centrocardita) aculeata" = Chama aculeata Poli 1795 jewel box
 Cardiida - Glossidae
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Lutraria sp. Lamarck 1799 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Pitar (Pitar) rudis Poli 1795 venus clam
Pelecyora (Pelecyora) islandicoides Lamarck 1818 venus clam
Gouldia (Gouldia) minima Montagu 1803 venus clam
"Chamalea cf. gallina" = Chamelea venus clam
"Callista (Costacallista) erycinoides" = Cytherea erycinoides Lamarck 1806 venus clam
 Cardiida - Solecurtidae
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Trachycardium (Trachycardium) multicostatum" = Europicardium multicostatum, Laevicardium (Laevicardium) ciprium
"Trachycardium (Trachycardium) multicostatum" = Europicardium multicostatum Brocchi 1814 cockle
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
Panopea sp. Menard 1807 clam
 Thraciida - Thraciidae
Thracia (Thracia) pubescens Pulteney 1799 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Nuculana (Lembulus) emarginata" = Nuculana emarginata
"Nuculana (Lembulus) emarginata" = Nuculana emarginata Lamarck 1819 pointed nut clam
Gastropoda
 Neogastropoda -
"Ancilla (Baryspira) glandiformis" = Amalda glandiformis
"Ancilla (Baryspira) glandiformis" = Amalda glandiformis Lamarck 1810 snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Buccinulum (Euthria) cf. corneum Linnaeus 1758 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Hinia (Uzita) serraticosta" = Nassarius (Uzita)
"Hinia (Uzita) serraticosta" = Nassarius (Uzita) snail
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
"Mitra (Tiara) cf. bronni" = Cancilla bronni
"Mitra (Tiara) cf. bronni" = Cancilla bronni Michellotti 1847 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
 Neogastropoda - Borsoniidae
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Conus (Conolithus) antidiluvianus" = Conilithes antidiluvianus, "Conus (Chelyconus) puschi" = Plagioconus puschi
"Conus (Conolithus) antidiluvianus" = Conilithes antidiluvianus Bruguière 1792 cone shell
"Conus (Chelyconus) puschi" = Plagioconus puschi Michelotti 1857 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
"Subula (Oxymeris) modesta" = Terebra modesta
"Subula (Oxymeris) modesta" = Terebra modesta Defrance 1829 auger snail
 Ficoidea - Ficidae
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Lunatia helicina moon snail
"Polinices (Polinices) dertomamilla" = Tectonatica dertomamilla Sacco 1890 moon snail
"Natica tigrina" = Cochlis tigrina Röding 1798 moon snail
Polinices (Polinices) redemptus Michelotti 1847 moon snail
Neverita josephina moon snail
 Cypraeoidea - Cypraeidae
"Zonaria (Zonaria) cf. fabagina" = Prozonarina fabagina
"Zonaria (Zonaria) cf. fabagina" = Prozonarina fabagina Lamarck 1810 cowry
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
Gyrineum (Aspa) marginatum triton shell
SUBSPECIES: Gyrineum (Aspa) marginatum cf. depressa
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
"Semicassis (Echinophoria) intermedia" = Echinophoria intermedium, "Semicassis (Tylocassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata
"Semicassis (Echinophoria) intermedia" = Echinophoria intermedium Brocchi 1814 snail
"Semicassis (Tylocassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata Sacco 1890 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Siliquariidae
Tenagodus (Tenagodus) obtusus Schumacher 1817 snail
SUBSPECIES: Tenagodus (Tenagodus) obtusus miocaenicus
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
"Archimediella (Turcoloidella) spirata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella) spiratus, "Haustator (Haustator) cf. vermicularis" = Turritella (Haustator) vermicularis
"Archimediella (Turcoloidella) spirata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella) spiratus Brocchi 1814 turret shell
"Haustator (Haustator) cf. vermicularis" = Turritella (Haustator) vermicularis Brocchi 1814 turret shell
 Architectibranchia - Ringiculidae
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
Angaria (Pseudoninella) miosolarioides, "Astraea (Ormastralium) speciosa" = Bolma (Ormastralium) speciosa, "Astraea (Bolma) rugosa" = Bolma rugosus
"Astraea (Ormastralium) speciosa" = Bolma (Ormastralium) speciosa Michelotti 1847 snail
"Astraea (Bolma) rugosa" = Bolma rugosus Linnaeus 1767 snail
Scaphopoda
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
"Dentalium (Antalis) interruptum" = Antalis interruptum, "Dentalium (Dentalium) inaequale" = Dentalium inaequale
"Dentalium (Antalis) interruptum" = Antalis interruptum Schröter 1854 tusk shell
"Dentalium (Dentalium) inaequale" = Dentalium inaequale Bronn 1831 tusk shell
Actinopteri
 Anguilliformes - Muraenidae
"Nezumia ornata" = Otolithus (Macrurus) ornatus3
"Nezumia ornata" = Otolithus (Macrurus) ornatus3 Bassoli 1906 eel
 Anguilliformes - Congridae
Paraconger sp.3 Kanazawa 1961 conger eel
Rhynchoconger pantanellii3 Bassoli and Schubert 1906 conger eel
Xenomystax sp.3 Gilbert 1891 conger eel
Gnathophis mystax3 conger eel
Conger conger3 Linnaeus 1758 European conger
 Argentiniformes - Argentinidae
Argentina sp.3 Linnaeus 1758
 Pleuronectiformes - Soleidae
Microchirus aff. variegatus3 Donovan 1808 flatfish
 Gobiiformes - Gobiidae
 Ophidiiformes - Bythitidae
 Ophidiiformes - Ophidioidae
 Batrachoidiformes - Batrachoididae
"Diaphus pedemontanus" = Porichthys pedemontanus3
"Diaphus pedemontanus" = Porichthys pedemontanus3 Robba 1970 toadfish
 Perciformes - Serranidae
Epigonus constanciae3 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Cepolidae
Cepola macrophthalma3 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Scorpaenidae
"Scorpaena" zibinica3 scorpionfish
 Spariformes - Sparidae
"Parascombrops mutinensis" = Otolithus (Sparidarum) mutinensis3, Dentex aff. macroccanus3, "Brachydeuterus speronatus" = Otolithus (Dentex) speronatus3
"Parascombrops mutinensis" = Otolithus (Sparidarum) mutinensis3 Bassoli 1906
"Brachydeuterus speronatus" = Otolithus (Dentex) speronatus3 Bassoli 1906
 Acanthomorphata - Caproidae
 Gadiformes - Gadidae
Gadiculus labiatus3 Schubert 1905
Gadiculus argenteus3 Guichenot 1850 silvery pout
"Micromesistius planatus" = Gadus planatus3 Bassoli and Schubert 1906 cod
 Gadiformes - Merlucciidae
Merluccius cf. merluccius3 Linnaeus 1758 European hake
 Myctophiformes - Myctophidae
Myctophum fitchi3 lanternfish
Myctophum punctatum3 Rafinesque 1810 spotted lanternfish
Diaphus befralai3 lanternfish
Diaphus cavallonis3 lanternfish
Diaphus aff. splendidus3 Brauer 1904 horned lanternfish
Diaphus holti3 Taaning 1918 small lantern fish
Notoscopelus bolini3 lanternfish
Notoscopelus elongatus3 Costa 1844 lanternfish
Hygophum hygomii3 lanternfish
Hygophum derthonensis3 Nolf and Steurbaut 1983 lanternfish
Benthosema fitchi3 Brzobohaty and Schultz 1978 lanternfish
Scopelopsis pliocenicus3 Anfossi and Mosna 1976 lanternfish
Lampadena aff. dea3 lanternfish
Mammalia
 Balaenopteroidea - Balaenopteridae
Balaenoptera sp.2 Lacépède 1804 rorqual
Plesiobalaenoptera quarantellii n. gen. n. sp.1 Bisconti 2010 rorqual
Rhynchonellata
 Terebratulida - Hesperithyrididae
"Terebratula sinuosa" = Hesperithyris sinuosa
"Terebratula sinuosa" = Hesperithyris sinuosa Dubar 1942
Otolithes
  -
"Arnoglossus kokeni" = Otolithus (Solea) kokeni3
"Arnoglossus kokeni" = Otolithus (Solea) kokeni3 Basoli and Schubert 1906
Clavalithes
  -