Bitter Creek (Eocene of the United States)

Also known as Zonule 2; Black Buttes

Where: Sweetwater County, Wyoming (41.7° N, 109.0° W: paleocoordinates 46.6° N, 92.6° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Main Body Member (Wasatch Formation), Wasatchian (55.8 - 50.3 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial

Primary reference: C. L. Gazin. 1965. Wyoming Geological Association Guidebook 19 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

PaleoDB collection 15455: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Arapahovius Paleofaunule includes a locality at the top of the Bitter Creek local section (Turtle Graveyard); however, this is 233.9' above Zonule 2, and Gazin's material was said to be from the "lowest part of the Eocene sequence"; Zonule 2 list of Savage et al. 1972 therefore is incorporated into Gazin's list
Mammalia
 Primates - Microsyopidae
Microsyops angustidens1 Matthew 1915 primate
 Primates - Omomyidae
"Anemorhysis pearcei" = Tetonoides pearcei1, Omomys sp.
"Anemorhysis pearcei" = Tetonoides pearcei1 Gazin 1962 tarsier
type is from "Lowest beds of Knight member... 1 1/4 miles south of Bitter Creek Station" (Gazin 1962)
Omomys sp. Leidy 1869 tarsier
 Primates - Notharctidae
Copelemur praetutus1 Gazin 1962 primate
Cantius frugivorus1 Cope 1875 primate
 Primates - Paromomyidae
Phenacolemurinae indet.1 Simpson 1955 primate
 Cimolesta - Coryphodontidae
Coryphodon radians Cope 1872 pantodont
probably includes "Coryphodon" of Savage et al. 1972
 Cimolesta - Pantolestidae
Palaeosinopa incerta2 Bown and Schankler 1982 eutherian
 Cimolesta - Pentacodontidae
Amaramnis gregoryi n. sp. Gazin 1962 eutherian
see Gazin 1962: Amaramnis also listed by Savage et al. 1972
 Leptictida - Leptictidae
Prodiacodon cf. tauricinerei1 Jepsen 1930 eutherian
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Paramys excavatus Loomis 1907 rodent
"Rodentia" listed by Savage et al. 1972
 Lipotyphla - Erinaceidae
Adapisoricinae indet.5 Schlosser 1887 hedgehog
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Hyracotherium pernix n. sp." = Arenahippus pernix3
"Hyracotherium pernix n. sp." = Arenahippus pernix3 Marsh 1876 horse
Gazin's "H. cf. angustidens"; Hyracotherium listed by Savage et al. 1972
 Perissodactyla - Palaeotheriidae
Hyracotherium sp. Owen 1841 odd-toed ungulate
large Hyracotherium sp. Gingerich 1991b: "Homogalax primaevus"; presumably includes "Homogalax" of Savage et al. 1972
 Tribosphenida - Nyctitheriidae
Nyctitheriidae indet.5 Simpson 1928 placental
 Creodonta - Oxyaenidae
Oxyaena lupina4 Cope 1874 creodont
 Ferae - Viverravidae
Didymictis sp.1 Cope 1875 placental
Viverravus cf. acutus Matthew and Granger 1915 placental
 Carnivora -
cf. Vulpavus sp. Marsh 1871 carnivoran
probably includes "Miacidae" of Savage et al. 1972
 Macroscelidea - Apheliscidae
Haplomylus speirianus Cope 1880 elephant shrew
probably includes "Haplomylus" of Savage et al. 1972
 Tribosphenida - Arctocyonidae
Chriacus sp.5 Cope 1883 condylarth
 Ungulata - Hyopsodontidae
Hyopsodus sp.1 Leidy 1870 condylarth
Hyopsodus loomisi McKenna 1960 condylarth
probably includes "Hyopsodus" of Savage et al. 1972
 Ungulata - Diacodexeidae
Diacodexis sp.1 Cope 1882 even-toed ungulate
 Ungulata - Phenacodontidae
Meniscotherium cf. tapiacitum1 Cope 1882 condylarth
Phenacodus sp.1 Cope 1873 condylarth
 Insectivora - Apatemyidae
Apatemys sp.5 Marsh 1872 insectivoran
 Acreodi - Mesonychidae
Pachyaena ossifraga Cope 1874 condylarth
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
Prototomus cf. secundarius1 Cope 1875 eutherian
 Theriiformes - Marsupialia
Marsupialia indet. marsupial
"Peratherium": Savage et al. 1972
 Multituberculata - Neoplagiaulacidae
cf. Parectypodus sp.5 Jepsen 1930 multituberculate