Saint-Privat-des-Vieux (Oligocene of France)

Also known as Alès Basin

Where: Gard, France (44.1° N, 4.1° E: paleocoordinates 43.9° N, 1.5° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: MP 26 (28.4 - 23.0 Ma)

• Lower Chattian, MP 26

Environment/lithology: mire or swamp; lenticular, carbonaceous mudstone and brown, argillaceous limestone

• As follows from the taphonomic considerations of Vianey-Liaud et al. (2014), the dark layer is interpreted as a swamp deposit.
• "The fossils come from a dark lenticular layer, about 20 cm thick, extending a few meters long, rich in organic matter and aquatic snails, overlying a layer of beige to pale brown marly limestone displaying numerous fragments of plants."

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: sieve,

• Although not explicitly stated by Vianey-Liaud et al. (2014), the fossils well may have been obtained by screenwashing.

•The material from Saint-Privat-des-Vieux is housed in the Collections of Paleontology, Institut des Sciences-de l’Évolution, Montpellier 2 University (ISE-M, UM2).

Primary reference: M. Vianey-Liaud, B. Comte, B. Marandat, S. Peigné, J.-C. Rage and J. Sudre. 2014. A new early late Oligocene (MP 26) continental vertebrate fauna from Saint-Privat-des-Vieux (Alès Basin, Gard, Southern France). Geodiversitas 36(4):565-622 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 172927: authorized by Johannes Mueller, entered by Torsten Liebrecht on 01.09.2015

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Vianey-Liaud et al. (2014) cite one of the cainotheriid artiodactyls as "Caenomeryx indet. cf. communis (Filhol, 1877)". There are, however, only two currently recognized Caenomeryx species (see Erfurt & Metais, 2007, in Prothero & Foss: The Evolution of Artiodactyls, p. 71) and only one was originally described by Filhol in 1877: Caenomeryx procommunis (orig. comb. Cainotherium procommune). The species cited by Filhol (1877, Ann. Sci. Geol. 8, p. 212) as "Cainotherium commune, E. Geof." was actually described by Bravard (1835) and is currently considered a junior synonym of Cainotherium laticurvatum Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire 1833 (Erfurt & Metais, 2007). Hence, the name "Caenomeryx indet. cf. communis (Filhol, 1877)" cited by Vianey-Liaud et al. (2014) probably refers to Caenomeryx procommunis (Filhol, 1877).
Osteichthyes
 Salientia - Alytidae
Alytidae indet. Fitzinger 1843 midwife toads
"Genus Discoglossus or Latonia"; 4 incomplete maxillae (ISE-M, UM2 SPV714), 1 angular (SPV715), 2 urostyles (SPV716), 1 scapula (SPV702), 1 humerus (SPV703), 9 ilia (SPV 701 and 717)
 Salientia - Ranidae
Pelophylax sp. Fitzinger 1843 frog
4 incomplete maxillae (ISE-M, UM2 SPV718), 1 angular (SPV719), 1 vertebra (SPV720), 1 urostyle (SPV721), 1 humerus (SPV705), 6 ilia (SPV704 and 722)
 Caudata -
Caudata indet. salamander
1 radius (ISE-M, UM2 SPV711), 1 femur (SPV712), and 1 incomplete humerus (SPV713)
 Caudata - Urodela
cf. Chelotriton sp. Pomel 1853 newt
1 incomplete trunk vertebra (ISE-M, UM2 SPV710)
Reptilia
 Testudines -
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines Batsch 1788 turtle
5 fragments of plates (SPV743)
 Loricata -
Crocodylia indet. crocodilian
presumably Diplocynodon; about 200 isolated more or less complete conical (ISE-M, UM2 SPV744) and globular (SPV745) teeth, and 5 fragments of skull bones (SPV746)
 Loricata - Krokolithidae
Krokolithes sp. Hirsch 1985 crocodile eggshell
Ootaxon, "may represent eggs of Diplocynodon"; 7 small fragments, 1 to 3 mm² and 0.33 to 0.45 mm thick (SPV750)
 Squamata - Lacertidae
Lacertidae indet. Bonaparte 1831 lizard
amblyodont form; 2 fragments of dentigerous bone (ISE-M, UM2 SPV726)
cf. Pseudeumeces sp. Hoffstetter 1944 lizard
1 anterior portion of a dentary (ISE-M, UM2 SPV706)
Lacerta cf. filholi Augé 1988 lizard
6 incomplete maxillae (ISE-M, UM2 SPV723), 5 incomplete dentaries (SPV724), 4 fragments of dentigerous bone (SPV725)
 Squamata -
? Shinisauria indet. Conrad 2008 lizard
1 incomplete maxilla (ISE-M, UM2 SPV709), and 1 dentary fragment (SPV730)
 Squamata - Anguidae
Ophisaurus sp. Daudin 1803 glass lizard
"Ophisaurus sensu lato"; 6 trunk vertebrae (ISE-M, UM2 SPV727), 15 caudal vertebrae (SPV728), and about 140 osteoderms (SPV729)
 Squamata -
Booidea indet. Gray 1825 snake
5 trunk vertebrae (ISE-M, UM2 SPV742)
 Squamata - Tropidophiidae
Platyspondylia sp. Rage 1974 dwarf boa
11 trunk vertebrae (ISE-M, UM2 SPV737), and 4 caudal vertebrae (SPV738 to 741)
 Squamata -
Lacertilia indet. Owen 1842 lizard
"Lizard indet."; 1 incomplete parietal (ISE-M, UM2 SPV735), 1 incomplete frontal (SPV736)
Amphisbaenia "A" worm lizard
2 fragmentary dentaries (ISE-M, UM2 SPV707 and 731)
Amphisbaenia "B" worm lizard
1 incomplete dentary (ISE-M, UM2 SPV708)
Amphisbaenia indet. worm lizard
1 premaxilla (ISE-M, UM2 SPV734), and 11 trunk vertebrae (SPV732 and 733)
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Theridomyidae
Protechimys major Schlosser 1884 rodent
2 p4 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV01), 1 fragment of left dp4 prelobe (SPV03), 4 complete m1-2 (SPV04 to 07), 3 fragments of m1-2 trigonids (no catalogue no. given), 1 right m3 (SPV09), 2 fragments of right maxillaries with severe digestion traces bearing M1-M2 (SPV10), 1 right P4 (SPV13), 1 lingual fragment of left P4 (SPV12), 1 left M2 (SPV14), 1 left M1-2 (SPV unnumbered)
Issiodoromys pauffiensis Vianey-Liaud 1976 rodent
29 DP4 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV200 to 228), 40 P4 (SPV229 to 266), 113 M1-2 (SPV 267 to 389), 26 M3 (SPV 390 to 414), 29 dp4 (SPV415 to 442), 21 p4 (SPV443 to 463), 101 m1-2 (SPV464-564), 23 m3 (SPV565 to 589)
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Cricetidae indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1817 mouse
1 fragment of a left maxilla bearing a well-worn M1 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV20)
Pseudocricetodon incertus Schlosser 1884 mouse
37 M1, 31 M2, 8 M3, 18 m1, 33 m2, 11 m3, and "numerous" lower incisors (catalogue numbers given only for a few specimens, are in the range of SPVxx to SPV1xx)
Heterocricetodon gaimersheimensis Freudenberg 1941 mouse
1 right M1 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV170), 3 M2 (SPV171 to 173), 1 right M3 (SPV174), 1 right m1 (SPV175), 1 left m2 (SPV178), 1 left m3 (SPV179)
Eucricetodon huerzeleri Vianey-Liaud 1972 mouse
1 maxillary fragment bearig M1 and M2 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV 165), 1 M1 (SPV 166), 1 M2 (SPV167), 1 M2 and 1 m2 fragments (SPV168 and 169)
 Rodentia - Aplodontidae
Aplodontidae indet. Brandt 1855 mountain beaver
2 small fragments of lower molars (ISE-M, UM2 SPV187 and 188), and 1 small fragment of an upper molar (SPV189)
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Comtia bernardi n. gen. n. sp.
Comtia bernardi n. gen. n. sp. Vianey-Liaud et al. 2014 squirrel
Holotype: right M?1 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV190)
 Rodentia - Gliridae
"Gliravus bruijni" = Schizogliravus bruijni
"Gliravus bruijni" = Schizogliravus bruijni Hugueney 1967 dormouse
2 M1-2 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV192 and 193), 3 m1-2 (SPV194 to 196)
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Eomys aff. zitteli Schlosser 1884 rodent
1 P4 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV180), 1 M1-2 (SPV181), 1 p4 (SPV185), 1 m1-2 (SPV184), 1 digested lower tooth row (SPV183)
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
cf. Geotrypus sp. Pomel 1848 mole
1 complete m1?, 1 broken m2?, and 1 p (ISE-M, UM2 SPV800 to 802)
 Chiroptera - Molossidae
Cuvierimops sp. Legendre and Sigé 1983 free-tailed bat
1 left m2 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV812), 1 left m3 (SPV814), 1 fragment of left mandible bearing p4-m1 (SPV810), 1 right C (SPV815), 1 left P4 (no catalogue no. given), 1 left M1 (SPV816), 2 right M2 (SPV817), 1 fragmentary M3 (SPV820)
 Carnivora -
cf. Palaeogale sp. von Meyer 1846 carnivoran
1 incomplete left p3 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV620, figured as "SPV680")
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
Thereutherium thylacodes Filhol 1876 eutherian
1 distal fragment of right M1 (ISE-M, UM2 SPV621, figured as "distal fragment of right M2, SPV 681")
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
Peratherium cf. elegans Aymard 1846 marsupial
4 fragments of M1-2-3? (ISE-M, UM2 SPV790 to 793)
 Artiodactyla - Cainotheriidae
Caenomeryx cf. communis even-toed ungulate
probably refers to Caenomeryx procommunis (Filhol, 1877), see comments on taxonomic list; 1 right mandible fragment with alveoli of p1 to p3 and with well preserved p4, 1 right P4 (no catalogue numbers given)
Plesiomeryx sp. Gervais even-toed ungulate
1 left DP3, 1 fragment of right upper molar (ISE-M, UM2 SPV650)
 Artiodactyla - Gelocidae
Bachitherium sp. Filhol 1882 ruminant
1 rght P4, 1 trigonid of a left lower molar (no catalogue numbers given)
 Artiodactyla - Lophiomerycidae
Lophiomeryx cf. chalaniati Pomel 1853 ruminant
1 left P4, 1 left p3, 1 calcaneum (ISE-M, UM2 SPV700)