Norden Bridge Quarry (Miocene of the United States)

Also known as UNSM Bw-106

Where: Brown County, Nebraska (42.8° N, 100.0° W: paleocoordinates 43.3° N, 96.8° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Cornell Dam Member (Valentine Formation), Barstovian (16.0 - 13.6 Ma)

• Hurlbut Ash in CD Mbr. dated at 11.6 +/- 1.1 (recalibrated from 13.6 +/- 1.3) Ma FT on glass; this date is anomalous and the recalibration was never justified

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: "channel"; unlithified sandstone

• "channel deposit" (Chantell 1964)
• "buff-colored, loose, and completely unconsolidated, crossbedded channel sands of fine to medium texture" (Tihen and Chantell 1963)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by J. A. Holman, M. Voorhies in 1960, 1962, 1971 (MSU), 1974 - 1979 (MSU), 1981; reposited in the UMMP, UNSM, USNM

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, sieve

• additional specimens are in the Michigan State University collection, which was obtained from "a five ton sample of matrix" (Holman 1973)

Primary reference: J. A. Tihen and C. J. Chantell. 1963. Urodele remains from the Valentine Formation of Nebraska. Copeia 1963(3):505-510 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 18284: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 05.08.1992, edited by Chris Bell, Jonathan Marcot and Matthew Carrano

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• NISP not completely clear; NISP 3396 for "large" specimens from five main quarries (clearly almost all mammals), and NISP 892 for screenwashed mammals in four screened samples (may include unidentifiable specimens), for a total of about 4288
unclassified
  -
Actinopteri
 Acipenseriformes - Acipenseridae
Acipenser sp.21 Linnaeus 1758 sturgeon
 Amiiformes - Amiidae
Amia calva Linnaeus 1766 bowfin
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus sp. de Lacep├Ęde 1803 gar
 Esociformes - Esocidae
Esox sp.21 Linnaeus 1758 pike
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Aplodinotus grunniens21 Rafinesque 1819 freshwater drum
 Centrarchiformes - Centrarchidae
Lepomis microlophus Lee 1980 sunfish
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Cyprinidae indet.21 Bonaparte 1832 carp-like fish
 Siluriformes - Ictaluridae
Reptilia
 Testudines -
Chrysemys sp.10 Gray 1844 painted turtle
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionyx quinni n. sp.9 Holman 1982 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Emydidae
Emydinae indet.2 pond turtle
Glyptemys valentinensis11 Holman and Fritz 2001 pond turtle
cf. Graptemys sp.21 Agassiz 1857 map turtle
 Testudines - Chelydridae
"Macroclemys sp." = Macrochelys21
"Macroclemys sp." = Macrochelys21 Gray 1856 alligator snapping turtle
 Testudines - Testudinidae
"Geochelone orthopygia" = Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) orthopygia Cope 1878 tortoise
Geochelone nordensis n. sp.8 Holman 1973 tortoise
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator sp.21 Daudin 1809 alligator
 Squamata - Xenosauridae
Nordenosaurus magnus n. sp.21 Holman 1973 lizard
xenosaurid
 Squamata - Anguidae
Anguidae indet.5 Gray 1825 lizard
large
Gerrhonotus cf. mungerorum21 alligator lizard
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Leiocephalus nebraskensis21 curly-tailed lizard
Sceloporus sp.21 Wiegmann 1828 spiny lizard
 Squamata - Boidae
Geringophis depressus9 Holman 1976 sand boa
Charina prebottae21 Brattstrom 1958 sand boa
 Squamata - Colubridae
Elaphe nebraskensis n. sp.7 Holman 1964 colubrid snake
Nebraskophis skinneri9 Holman 1973 colubrid snake
Ameiseophis cf. robinsoni9 Holman 1976 colubrid snake
originally entered as Ameisophis robinsoni
Lampropeltis similis n. sp.7 Holman 1964 colubrid snake
Salvadora paleolineata9 Holman 1973 colubrid snake
Paleoheterodon tiheni n. gen. n. sp.7 Holman 1964 colubrid snake
Neonatrix magna n. sp.9 Holman 1982 colubrid snake
Neonatrix elongata9 Holman 1973 colubrid snake
 Squamata - Viperidae
Viperidae indet.9 Oppel 1811 viper
 Squamata - Rhineuridae
cf. Rhineura sp.21 Cope 1861 worm lizard
 Squamata - Scincidae
cf. Eumeces sp.5 Wiegmann 1834 skink
Eumeces sp.23 Wiegmann 1834 skink
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Tregomys sp." = Copemys22, "Copemys niobrariensis" = Copemys longidens22
"Tregomys sp." = Copemys22 Wood 1936 mouse
"Copemys niobrariensis" = Copemys longidens22 Hall 1930 mouse
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Megasminthus tiheni14 Klingener 1966 jumping mouse
Schaubeumys sp.22 Wood 1935 jumping mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Blackia sp.22 Mein 1970 squirrel
Spermophilus sp.22 Cuvier 1825 ground squirrel
Tamias cf. ateles1 Hall 1930 chipmunk
Petauristodon sp.1 Engesser 1979 squirrel
Miospermophilus sp.22 Black 1963 squirrel
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
? Leptodontomys sp.14 Shotwell 1956 rodent
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Phelosaccomys sp.18 Korth and Reynolds 1994 pocket gopher
consistent with Evander 1999; "? Parapliosaccomys sp." said to be new; "P. annae" of Korth 1987
 Rodentia - Heteromyidae
Cupidinimus sp.1 Wood 1935 rodent
Cupidinimus nebraskensis14 Wood 1935 rodent
Mioheteromys amplissimus16 Korth 1997 rodent
Lignimus cf. montis22 Storer 1970 rodent
described by Storer 1973
Perognathus brevidens15 Korth 1987 pocket mouse
Perognathus trojectioansrum22 Korth 1979 pocket mouse
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Anchitheriomys fluminis22 Matthew 1918 beaver
see also Korth and Emry 1997a
Monosaulax skinneri6 Stout 1999 beaver
Eucastor tortus22 Leidy 1858 beaver
confirmed by Evander 1999
"Monosaulax valentinensis" = Temperocastor valentinensis1 Stout 1999 beaver
 Rodentia - Mylagaulidae
Pterogaulus sp.17 Korth 2000 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Hypolagus parviplicatus22 Dawson 1958 rabbit
Hypolagus cf. fontinalis22 Dawson 1958 rabbit
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Russellagus vonhofi22 Storer 1970 pika
Hesperolagomys fluviatilis22 Storer 1970 pika
 Lipotyphla - Erinaceidae
Parvericius montanus22 Koerner 1940 hedgehog
Metechinus amplior22 Rich 1981 hedgehog
Untermannerix copiosus22 Rich 1981 hedgehog
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Mystipterus sp.22 Hall 1930 mole
cf. Scalopoides sp.22 Wilson 1960 mole
Domninoides valentinensis22 Reed 1962 mole
 Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
Chalicotheriidae indet.22 Gill 1872 chalicothere
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
"Teleoceras minor" = Teleoceras meridianum19 Leidy 1865 rhinoceros
Peraceras superciliosum1 Cope 1880 rhinoceros
Peraceras profectum20 Matthew 1899 rhinoceros
Aphelops megalodus22 Cope 1873 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapiridae indet.22 Gray 1821 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Merychippus" republicanus22 Osborn 1918 horse
i.d. checked by JA 24 October 1990, on basis of figures and description of species provided by Webb and Hulbert 1986; the same species as USNM 1352 is present
Merychippus insignis22 Leidy 1856 horse
"Hippotherium ? quinni" = Cormohipparion quinni24 Woodburne 1996 hipparionine horse
Protohippus sp.22 Leidy 1858 horse
said to be a new species; less hypsodont, more complex fossettes than P. perditus; probably not P. vetus either
Calippus proplacidus1 Osborn 1918 horse
Parahippus cognatus22 Leidy 1858 anchitheriine horse
Megahippus mckennai22 Tedford and Alf 1962 anchitheriine horse
Archaeohippus sp.22 Gidley 1906 anchitheriine horse
Hypohippus osborni22 Gidley 1907 anchitheriine horse
 Theriiformes - Plesiosoricidae
Plesiosorex donroosai22 Green 1977 placental
 Theriiformes - Soricidae
Alluvisorex sp.22 Hutchison 1966 shrew
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
cf. Antrozous sp.22 Allen 1862 pallid bat
a bat
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Brachypsalis modicus1 Matthew 1918 mustelid carnivore
Miomustela cf. madisonae22 Douglass 1929 mustelid carnivore
Leptarctus primus22 Leidy 1856 mustelid carnivore
"Plionictis parviloba" = Martes parviloba22 Cope 1873 marten
Plionictis ogygia22 Matthew 1901 mustelid carnivore
cf. Mionictis pristinus1 Matthew and Gidley 1904 badger
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
"Probassariscus antiquus" = Bassariscus antiquus1
"Probassariscus antiquus" = Bassariscus antiquus1 Matthew and Cook 1909 ringtail
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursidae indet.1 Gray 1825 bear
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Pseudocyon sp.13 Lartet 1851 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Canidae
Leptocyon vafer22 Leidy 1858 canine
Cynarctus saxatilis22 Matthew 1902 bone-crushing dog
confirmed by Wang et al. 1999
Aelurodon cf. ferox1 Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
Carpocyon compressus1 Cope 1890 bone-crushing dog
Paratomarctus temerarius1 Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felidae indet.22 Gray 1821 cat
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
"Gomphotherium cf. willistoni" = Tetrabelodon osborni1
"Gomphotherium cf. willistoni" = Tetrabelodon osborni1 Barbour 1916 gomphothere
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
cf. Zygolophodon sp.22 Vacek 1877 mastodon
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
Prosthennops xiphodonticus1 Barbour 1925 peccary
 Artiodactyla - Camelidae
cf. Miolabis sp.22 Hay 1899 camel
Procamelus occidentalis22 Leidy 1858 camel
Aepycamelus robustus22 Leidy 1858 camel
 Artiodactyla - Protoceratidae
Protoceratidae indet.22 Marsh 1891 protoceratid
 Artiodactyla - Leptomerycidae
Pseudoparablastomeryx sp.22 Frick 1937 ruminant
 Artiodactyla - Palaeomerycidae
Bouromeryx cf. americanus22 Douglass 1899 ruminant
 Artiodactyla - Antilocapridae
Merycodus necatus22 Leidy 1854 pronghorn
Submeryceros minor1 Frick 1937 pronghorn
Ramoceros osborni22 Matthew 1904 pronghorn
 Artiodactyla - Moschidae
Blastomeryx gemmifer22 Cope 1874 musk deer
 Artiodactyla - Merycoidodontidae
"Merychyus medius" = Ustatochoerus medius1, ? Ticholeptus sp.22
"Merychyus medius" = Ustatochoerus medius1 Leidy 1858 oreodont
? Ticholeptus sp.22 Cope 1878 oreodont
Amphibia
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
"Scaphiopus wardorum n. sp." = Scaphiopus (Scaphiopus) wardorum5, "Scaphiopus bombifrons" = Spea bombifrons21
"Scaphiopus wardorum n. sp." = Scaphiopus (Scaphiopus) wardorum5 Estes and Tihen 1964 spadefoot toad
"Scaphiopus bombifrons" = Spea bombifrons21 Cope 1863 Plains spadefoot
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana aff. pipiens21 Schreber 1782 Northern leopard frog
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla cf. gratiosa3 Le Conte 1856 barking treefrog
see also Chantell 1966
Hyla cf. squirella3 Bosc 1800 squirrel treefrog
Hyla cf. versicolor4 Le Conte 1825 gray tree frog
Acris cf. crepitans3 Baird 1854 northern cricket frog
see also Chantell 1966
Pseudacris cf. clarki3 Baird 1854 spotted chorus frog
Pseudacris nordensis n. sp.3 Chantell 1964 chorus frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo valentinensis n. sp.5 Estes and Tihen 1964 toad
Bufo kuhrei n. sp.8 Holman 1973 toad
Bufo cf. hibbardi5 Taylor 1936 toad
 Caudata - Urodela
"Cryptobranchus mccalli n. sp." = Andrias matthewi, Siren sp.12, Ambystoma minshalli n. sp.
"Cryptobranchus mccalli n. sp." = Andrias matthewi Cook 1917 giant salamander
Siren sp.12 Linnaeus 1766 siren
Ambystoma minshalli n. sp. Tihen and Chantell 1963 mole salamander