Swartkrans - Member 1 (Pleistocene of South Africa)

Also known as ETE Locality 642, Orange Breccia, Pink Breccia

Where: South Africa (26.0° S, 27.7° E: paleocoordinates 26.2° S, 27.5° E)

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: 11 Member (Swartkrans Formation), Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• ETE dating method: composite, ETE age comment: age=Pleistocene=approx. 1.7 my based on hominid and faunal evidence

Environment/lithology: wet floodplain; breccia

• ETE sed env 1: ., ETE sed env 2: . ETE event: ., ETE env comment: repeated mudfl. resulting from soil run off
• ETE rock type adj: breccia, ETE lithology comments: Matrix is secondary calcified reddish brown sandy silt, flowstone interlaminations , lenticular beds, travertine, brecc.

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, surface (float)

• ETE Size: both; ETE reference list: 478, ; ETE museum list: TM

Primary reference: C. K. Brain. 1994. The Swartkrans Palaeontological Research Project in perspective: results and conclusions. South African Journal of Science 90:220-223 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/M. Kosnik]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 21824: authorized by Anna Behrensmeyer, entered by Anna Behrensmeyer on 17.10.1995, edited by John Damuth, Richard Potts and Hannah O'Regan

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Chyrsochloridae indet.
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Dendromurinae
Gastropoda
 Pulmonata - Achatinidae
cf. Achatina sp. Lamarck 1799 slug
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: mak - replaced genus name sp. with family name, species name "Achatidae" pulled in favor of sp.
Reptilia
  -
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768 reptile
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Lacertilia
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768 reptile
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Reptilia
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768 reptile
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Chelonia
Aves
  -
Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758 bird
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Aves
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Phasianidae indet. Horsfield 1821 pheasant
ETE occurrence; species: Francolin
 Ciconiiformes - Plataleidae
Plataleidae indet. Bonaparte 1838 spoonbill
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: ibis
Mammalia
  -
Mammalia indet. Linnaeus 1758 mammal
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Mammalia
Mammalia indet. Linnaeus 1758 mammal
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Carnivora
Mammalia indet. Linnaeus 1758 mammal
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hyracoidea
Mammalia indet. Linnaeus 1758 mammal
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Lagomorpha
 Primates - Hominidae
Hominidae indet. Gray 1825 ape
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hominidae
Australopithecus robustus Broom 1938 australopithecine
Homo sp. Linnaeus 1758 human
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
Cercopithecidae indet. Gray 1821 monkey
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: papionid
Cercopithecidae indet. Gray 1821 monkey
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Cercopithecidae
Papio robinsoni Freedman 1957 baboon
Theropithecus oswaldi Andrews 1916 gelada
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: danieli
Parapapio jonesi Broom 1940 monkey
Papio (Dinopithecus) ingens Broom 1937 monkey
cf. Cercopithecoides sp. Mollett 1947 monkey
 Rodentia - Nesomyidae
 Rodentia - Muridae
Lemniscomys sp. Trouessart 1881 striped grass mouse
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: sp.nov.-Swartkrans
Mus cf. minutoides house mouse
Mus cf. triton house mouse
Otomys gracilis mouse
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: subgen.Palaeotomys
Steatomys cf. pratensis Peters 1846 fat mouse
Tatera sp. Lataste 1882 large naked-soled gerbil
Tatera robinsoni large naked-soled gerbil
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: sp.nov.-Swartkrans
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Cricetidae indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1817 mouse
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Rodenta/Myomorpha
 Rodentia - Castoridae
 Rodentia - Bathyergidae
Cryptomys sp. Gray 1964 mole rat
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix africaeaustralis Peters 1852 Cape porcupine
 Glires - Ierboidae
Pedetes sp. Illiger 1811 springhaas
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: sp.nov.-Swartkrans
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equidae indet., "Hipparion libycum" = Eurygnathohippus libycum, "Hipparion libycum" = Eurygnathohippus libycum, Equus capensis
Equidae indet. Gray 1821 horse
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Equidae
"Hipparion libycum" = Eurygnathohippus libycum Pomel 1897 hipparionine horse
"Hipparion libycum" = Eurygnathohippus libycum Pomel 1897 hipparionine horse
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: steytlieri
Equus capensis Broom 1909 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae indet. Fischer 1814 shrew
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Soricidae
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Aonyx capensis Schinz 1821 African clawless otter
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canidae indet. Fischer 1817 canid
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: canidae
Canis cf. mesomelas Schreber 1775 black-backed jackal
Canis mesomelas Schreber 1775 black-backed jackal
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: pappos
 Carnivora - Felidae
Megantereon sp. Croizet and Jobert 1828 cat
"Felis serval" = Caracal serval Schreber 1776 serval
"Felis caracal" = Caracal caracal Schreber 1776 caracal
Panthera leo Linnaeus 1758 lion
Panthera pardus Linnaeus 1758 leopard
Dinofelis sp. Zdansky 1924 cat
 Carnivora - Viverridae
Viverridae indet. Gray 1821 civet
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: mongoose
 Carnivora - Herpestidae
Herpestes ichneumon Linnaeus 1758 Egyptian mongoose
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Hyaenidae indet. Gray 1821 hyaena
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hyaenidae
Parahyaena brunnea2 Thunberg 1820 brown hyaena
Parahyaena brunnea2 Thunberg 1820 brown hyaena
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: dispar
Proteles sp. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1824 hyaena
Chasmaporthetes nitidula1 hyaena
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: A-Swartkrans(prim)
Chasmaporthetes nitidula1 hyaena
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: B-Swartkrans(Adv)
Chasmaporthetes nitidula1 hyaena
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: uncertain_Swartkrans
Crocuta crocuta Erxleben 1777 spotted hyaena
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: ultra
Crocuta crocuta Erxleben 1777 spotted hyaena
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: venustula
 Tubulidentata - Orycteropodidae
Orycteropus afer Pallas 1766 aardvark
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
cf. Elephas sp. Linnaeus 1758 elephant
 Hyracoidea - Procaviidae
Procavia antiqua Broom 1934 Cape hyrax
Procavia transvaalensis Shaw 1937 Cape hyrax
 Macroscelidea - Macroscelididae
Elephantulus sp. Thomas and Schwann 1906 elephant shrew
Elephantulus langi elephant shrew
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: subgen.Elephantomys
Elephantulus cf. brachyrhynchus elephant shrew
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: mak - subgenus name taken from unique name field
 Tribosphenida - Chrysochloridae
Amblysomus spelea African golden mole
ETE occurrence; species: subgen.Chlorotalpa
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Suidae indet. Gray 1821 pig
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Suidae
Metridiochoerus andrewsi Hopwood 1926 pig
"cf. Tapinochoerus meadowsi" = Metridiochoerus pig
Phacochoerus sp. Cuvier 1826 warthog
 Artiodactyla - Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hippo
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE minimum number of individuals; species: Murinae
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: alcelaphine-med.
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae size I
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae Size II
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae Size III
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae Size IV
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Antil./Neotragini
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: alcelaphine
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Bovidae
Syncerus sp. Hodgson 1847 African buffalo
Tragelaphus cf. strepsiceros Pallas 1766 greater kudu
cf. Makapania sp. Wells and Cooke 1957 antelope
Oreotragus cf. major klipspringer
Oreotragus oreotragus Zimmermann 1783 klipspringer
Raphicerus campestris Thunberg 1811 steenbok
Antidorcas sp. Sundevall 1847 springbok
"Antidorcas australis" = Antidorcas marsupialis australis Hendey and Hendey 1968 springbok
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: or marsupialis
cf. Gazella sp. Blaineville 1816 gazelle
cf. Megalotragus sp. van Hoepen 1932 antelope
Beatragus sp. Heller 1912 hirola
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: or Alcelaphus
Damaliscus sp. Sclater and Thomas 1894 antelope
Damaliscus sp. Sclater and Thomas 1894 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: 121-Swartkrans
"Rabaticeras porrocornutus" = Numidocapra antelope
Connochaetes sp. Lichtenstein 1812 wildebeest
cf. Connochaetes sp. Lichtenstein 1812 wildebeest
Hippotragini indet. Sundevall 1845 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hippotragini
Pelea cf. capreolus Forster 1790 grey rhebok
Redunca cf. arundinum Boddaert 1785 southern reedbuck
Amphibia
  -
Amphibia indet. tetrapod
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: frog/toad
Adenota
  -
"Antidorcas cf. recki" = Adenota recki
"Antidorcas cf. recki" = Adenota recki Schwartz 1932