Kuruksay, Kuruksai-Navrukho (Pliocene of Tajikistan)

Also known as Navrukho, Kuruksai

Where: Tajikistan (38.3° N, 69.7° E: paleocoordinates 38.5° N, 69.5° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Kuruksai suite Formation, Pliocene (5.3 - 2.6 Ma)

• Middle Villafranchian, Late Pliocene, MN17. Below the Olduvai Subchron in the lower part of the Matuyama Chron. At the top of the Kuruksay/Kuruksai suite. There are 4 layers at the site - the three lowest are conglomerates and aleurites belonging to the Kuruksai suite (the bone bed is the second of these layers). The topmost bed is largely loessic clay and belongs to the Kairubak suite.

Environment/lithology: fluvial; siltstone and conglomeratic sandstone

• Fluvial deposits - siltstone, sandstone with interbedded conglomerates, belonging to the Kuruksay suite.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: Two localities have been excavated - Kuruksai-Navrukho and Kuruksai-Lagernaya. This is probably the faunal list from Navrukho.

•The locality was discovered in 1962.

Primary reference: M.V. Sotnikova, A.E. Dodonov, and A.V. Pen'kov. 1997. Upper Cenozoic bio-magnetic stratigraphy of Central Asian mammalian localities. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 133:243-258 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 34444: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 01.09.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Mammalia
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Ellobius sp. Fischer 1814 mole-vole
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Dicerorhinus sp. Gloger 1841 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 horse
small form (compared to the larger E. stenonis, above)
Equus stenonis Cocchi 1867 horse
E. s. pamirensis (= E.s. bactrianus)
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus cf. etruscus Cuvier 1823 bear
 Carnivora - Canidae
Nyctereutes megamastoides Pomel 1842 raccoon dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Megantereon megantereon Croizet and Jobert 1828 cat
Lynx ex gr. issiodorensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 lynx
Acinonyx cf. pardinensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 cheetah
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Pliocrocuta perrieri Kretzoi 1938 hyaena
Chasmaporthetes lunensis Del Campana 1914 hyaena
Chasmaporthetes lunensis kani
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
 Ungulata - Camelidae
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
"Sogdianotherium kuruksaense" = Mitilanotherium, Sivatherium sp.
"Sogdianotherium kuruksaense" = Mitilanotherium giraffe
Sivatherium sp. Falconer and Cautley 1836 giraffe
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Protoryx sp. Forsyth Major 1891 antelope
Antilospira sp. Teilhard de Jardin and Young 1931 antelope
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Libralces cf. gallicus Azzaroli 1952 deer
"Elaphurus eleonorae" = Cervus Pere David's deer
Eucladoceros sp. Falconer 1868 deer