Perrier-Etouaires (Pliocene of France)

Also known as Les Etouaires, Etouaires, Perrier

Where: France (45.7° N, 2.9° E: paleocoordinates 45.8° N, 2.6° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: MN 16 (3.2 - 2.6 Ma)

• Middle Pliocene, Villafranchian, Villanyian. Estimated to date between 2.6-2.25Ma.


Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: This paper gives an updated faunal list. Where details have been provided on earlier identifications these have been entered too.

•Type locailty for Sus arvernensis Croizet & Jobert, 1828, Gazella borbonica Deperet, 1884 and Pliotragus ardeus (Deperet, 1884).

Primary reference: E. Heintz, C. Guerin, R. Martin and F. Prat. 1974. Principaux gisements villafranchiens de France: Listes fauniques et biostratigraphie. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres 78(1):169-182 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 47100: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 08.02.2005

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Like Vialette, the equids reported from this site appear to have been mis-identifed or poorly provenanced. Therefore the authors conclude that Equus stenonis was not present in this fauna. Hippopotamus has also been reported and subsequently discounted.
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Mimomys sp.1 Forsyth-Major 1902 vole
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpidae indet. Fischer de Waldheim 1817 mole
several specimens including an upper right M3 (Prr 103) and a proximal ulna fragment (Prr 98), all in Bale Museum.
Galemys sp. Kaup 1829 Pyrenean desman
1 right lower M1 (Prr 104, Bale)
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus3 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
2 right humeri and 1 atlas (MNHN, Paris), 1 right juvenile calcaneum (P. 86, Lyon Museum), 1 incomplete juvenile tibia and a fragment of proximal radius (D17 and D8-10, Clermont-Ferrand) and 3 femora (Prr 155, 323 and 340, Bale Museum).
Dicerorhinus jeanvireti rhinoceros
5 tarsals (2327), 5 metatarsals (2331), 1 radius (2317), 1 right femur, 2 metacarpals (2339, 2333), all in the MNHN, Paris.
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus arvernensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 tapir
not rare.
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus etruscus Cuvier 1823 bear
Material in the Bravard collection MNHN, Paris, figured by Heller (1949) and Viret (1954).
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Baranogale antiqua Pomel 1864 mustelid carnivore
at least 2 mandibles in the MNHM, Paris, figured in Schaub 1949.
"Aonyx bravardi" = Lutra bravardi Pomel 1843 otter
at least 1 maxilla figured in Gervais 1859.
Enhydrictis ardea Bravard 1828 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Canidae
? Vulpes alopecoides Forsyth Major 1877 fox
a back paw? (patte posterieure) M56 in Clermont.
Canis aff. etruscus Forsyth Major 1877 canine
Material in the NHM, London and a tibia (R. 21) in Clermont.
Nyctereutes megamastoides Pomel 1842 raccoon dog
material in MNHN, Paris.
 Carnivora - Felidae
Megantereon megantereon Croizet and Jobert 1828 cat
1 cranium in MNHN, Paris.
? Homotherium crenatidens cat
doubtful metatarsals in Bale Museum.
Lynx issiodorensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 lynx
abundant. 3 crania in Bale (Prr 200, 201, 411) and 1 cranium in Lyon Museum (P. 143).
Acinonyx pardinensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 cheetah
type specimen, a mandible , held in the MNHN, Paris. Figured in Schaub 1949.
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Pliocrocuta perrieri3 Kretzoi 1938 hyaena
Type specimen, a mandible (834) in MNHN, Paris.
Chasmaporthetes lunensis2 Del Campana 1914 hyaena
Isolated teeth kept in Clermont.
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Anancus arvernensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 gomphothere
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Sus arvernensis pig
6 maxilla and mandible fragments, include two type specimens from Croizet and Jobert (1829). All held in the Croizet Collection, MNHM, Paris.
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Leptobos elatus antelope
Material in Bale Museum and MNHN, Paris.
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae