Pardines (Pleistocene of France)

Where: Auvergne, France (45.6° N, 3.2° E: paleocoordinates 45.6° N, 3.0° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: MN 17 (2.6 - 1.8 Ma)

• Late Pliocene, Villanyian, Villafranchian


Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: E. Heintz, C. Guerin, R. Martin and F. Prat. 1974. Principaux gisements villafranchiens de France: Listes fauniques et biostratigraphie. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres 78(1):169-182 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 47131: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 15.02.2005

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Many equid teeth and bones in Bale Museum have stenonine characteristics.
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus2 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
1 poorly preserved deciduous lower dp3 (LP 203, Bale Museum).
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus bressanus horse
= Equus stenonis var. major Boule. 2 mandible fragments with incisors and lateral molars from the same individual (LP 7), 1 scapula fragment (LP 62), 1 3rd metacarpal (LP 128), 1 astragalus (LP 4).
Equus stenonis Cocchi 1867 horse
Equus stenonis vireti. (Provisonal attribution). 1 stenonid upper right M1 (LP 486, Bale Musuem).
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus etruscus Cuvier 1823 bear
1 mandible (LP 199, Bale Museum).
 Carnivora - Canidae
Nyctereutes megamastoides Pomel 1842 raccoon dog
a cranium (LP 217) and a maxilla (LP 224) in Bale Museum.
 Carnivora - Felidae
Megantereon megantereon Croizet and Jobert 1828 cat
1 cranium in Bale Museum.
Homotherium crenatidens cat
Bones in Bale Museum including a tibia (LP 154) and a radius (LP 131).
Lynx issiodorensis2 Croizet and Jobert 1828 lynx
Held in Bale Museum.
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
? Pliocrocuta perrieri2 Kretzoi 1938 hyaena
1 metatarsal and 2 vertebrae (LP 198, Bale Museum). Kurten 1963 had grave doubts that these are H. perrieri.
Chasmaporthetes lunensis1 Del Campana 1914 hyaena
Described and illustrated by Schaub (1941).
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Anancus arvernensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 gomphothere
A fragment of palate with right D2 and left D2 and D3 (LP 176, Bale Museum). Z. borsoni and A. meridionalis have not been identified.
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Leptobos etruscus antelope
Several specimens including a distal tibia fragment (LP 30) and distal metatarsal fragment (LP 46) in Bale Museum. L. etruscus or possibly Leptobos stenometopon.
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervus philisi deer
a left juvenile metacarpal lacking the distal epiphysis (LP 60).
Croizetoceros ramosus Croizet and Jobert 1828 deer
Croizetoceros ramosus medius
Eucladoceros senezensis deer
Eucladoceros senezensis vireti