Torre Picchio section, S. Maria di Ciciliano Formation, Montecastrilli, Umbria (Pliocene to of Italy)

Also known as Torre di Picchio

Where: Umbria, Italy (42.7° N, 12.5° E: paleocoordinates 42.6° N, 12.4° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Santa Maria di Ciciliano Formation, Pliocene to Pliocene (5.3 - 0.0 Ma)

• A number of samples within the section were taken and each has been entered separately. Date based on Macromammals and molluscs - thought to be Early Pleistocene in age, but some taxa are Pliocene, indicating either longer survival in Italy than elsewhere, or that the Formation is slightly earlier than previously thought (in which case it marks the first appearance of some Early Pleistocene taxa).

Environment/lithology: fluvial

• Three separate deposits in the section - lowermost is two meters of coarse sands which are yellow, cross-stratified with levels or lenses of clayey pebbles, fine sand, silt and clay. Oxidised crusts and fossil wood stumps are common features. Thought to be a meandering channel deposit. Above it is one meter of silts and clays, the first 35 cm of which are silty, brownish, with evident root traces and therefore considered a palaeosol formed in a swampy environment. The last 70 cm are grey clays refered to a lacustrine environment.
• Outcrop of sandy, clayey and silty sediments.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Collection methods: bulk, sieve,

Primary reference: O. Girotti, L. Capasso Barbato, D. Esu, E. Gliozzi, T. Kotsakis, E. Martinetto, C. Petronio, R. Sardella, and E. Squazzini. 2003. The section of Torre Picchio (Terni, Umbria, Central Italy): A Villafranchian site rich in vertebrates, molluscs, ostracods and plants. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 109(1):77-98 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 51684: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 10.06.2005

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Vertebrates are given as one list for the whole outcrop. Plant remains and molluscs are subdivided/subsampled and have been entered as subcollections.
"Pisces indet." = Osteichthyes
"Pisces indet." = Osteichthyes Huxley 1880 bony fish
 Salientia -
Anura indet. frog
a distal tibia-fibula, toad sized.
 Testudines - Trionychidae
? Trionyx sp. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809 softshell turtle
Testudinata indet (? Trionyx sp.) 1 large scapula. Uncertain attribution.
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
Mauremys sp. Gray 1870 pond turtle
1 left xiphiplastron.
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Emys orbicularis Linnaeus 1758 European pond turtle
many shell plates.
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Ciconiidae indet. Sundevall 1836 stork
1 carpometacarpus.
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipitridae indet. Viellot 1816 hawk
1 tarsometatarsus
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Mimomys medasensis vole
upper teeth: 15 M1, 2 M2, 4, M3. Lower teeth: 10 M1, 3 M2, 1 M3, 4 mandible fragments with teeth.
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor sp. Linnaeus 1758 beaver
1 upper right M2, 1 phalanx.
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Oryctolagus cf. lacosti rabbit
1 mandible fragment with P3-M3, 1 incisor fragment, 3 lower P3, 8 molars.
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Prolagus sp. Pomel 1853 pika
1 maxilla with P2-M3, 1 palate with P3, 3 mandibles with teeth, 1 incisor fragment, 5 lower P2, 8 lower P3, 18 premolar 4 or molar fragments.
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus cf. etruscus Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
1 juvenile mandible, 1 third metatarsal.
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus cf. stenonis Cocchi 1867 horse
1 proximal metatarsal epiphysis, 1 acetabulum, lower teeth fragments: 1 P4 , 1 P3, 1 D3. 1 molar and 1 premolar fragment.
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
? Baranogale sp. Kormos 1934 mustelid carnivore
1 lower M1 (heavily worn), 1 second phalanx.
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis sp. Linnaeus 1758 canine
1 fragmentary upper P3, 1 distal metapodial.
 Carnivora - Felidae
Homotherium sp. Fabrini 1890 cat
1 femur fragment. 1 first phalanx. Large, evidence of fluvial transport.
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
? Mammuthus meridionalis Nesti 1825 mammoth
4 fragments of molar enamel.
 Ungulata - Suidae
Sus strozzii pig
Incisor, molar fragment, lower canine fragment, lower M3.
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
Large sized. 1 molar fragment, 1 upper M3 fragment.
Leptobos cf. etruscus antelope
2 metacarpals, 3 metatarsals, 1 first phalanx, 1 second phalanx, 1 tibia, 1 femur, 1 mandible fragment with P4.
Leptobos sp. Rütimeyer 1877 antelope
teeth and some postcranial remains.
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervidae indet. Gray 1821 deer
fragmentary bones and teeth (some juvenile).
Eucladoceros sp. Falconer 1868 deer
Eucladoceros dicranios vel. ctenoides. 1 juvenile mandible fragment, 1 upper M1, 1 Lower M1, 1 metatarsal fragment, 1 calcaneum, 1 astragalus. No antlers.
Axis nestii deer
well represented with cranial, dental and antler remains, plus 1 radius, 1 metacarpal and 1 metatarsal.
Axis sp. Gray 1825 deer
4 first phalanges, 1 third phalanx, plus 1 antler fragment and fragmentary postcranial remains.
 Ungulata -
Bovoidea "indet. 1" Gray 1821 ruminant
Bovoidea sensu latu. Medium sized antelope, ? Gallogoral. 1 third phalanx.
Bovoidea "indet. 2" Gray 1821 ruminant
medium sized, fragment of skull with horncore.