Montagnola Senese, near Siena, Tuscany (Pleistocene of Italy)

Where: Tuscany, Italy (43.3° N, 11.3° E: paleocoordinates 43.3° N, 11.3° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• Late Villanyian, Early Pleistocene.

Environment/lithology: cave

• Lower part of the cave contains terra rossa friabile. There is also some more compact breccia.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: sieve

• Friable Terra rossa sieved through 1 to 0.5mm sieves. Hardened breccia dissolved using 85% 'acido formico'. Material held in the Instituto di Geologia e Paleontologia di Siena, with some in the private collections of F. Filippini and G. Maccherini.

Primary reference: R. Fondi. 1972. Fauna Cromeriana della Montagnola Senese. Palaeontographia Italica 68:1-27 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 51778: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 17.06.2005, edited by Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Gastropoda
 Littorinoidea - Pomatiasidae
Pomatias elegans periwinkle
 Pulmonata - Discidae
 Limacoidea - Limacidae
Limax sp. Linnaeus 1758 slug
Osteichthyes
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla sp. Laurenti 1768 tree frog
 Salientia - Discoglossidae
Discoglossus sp.1 Otth 1837 painted frog
predominante.
Reptilia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudo sp. Linnaeus 1758 turtle
carapace fragments.
 Sauria -
Sauria indet. diapsid
2 types, Sauri gen. e sp. indet. 1 maxilla fragment and 3 incomplete mandibles.
Aves
  -
Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758 bird
numerous examples of indeterminate small and medium birds.
Reptilia
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
numerous vertebrae.
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Muridae
Apodemus mystacinus2 Danford and Alston 1877 Eastern broad-toothed field mouse
Apodemus del gruppo alsomyoides-mystacinus. 15 incomplete mandibles.
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Mimomys sp.2 Forsyth-Major 1902 vole
1 mandible fragment, 10 lower M1, 7 lower M2, 7 upper M1, 6 upper M2, 3 upper M3, three proximal ulnae and 2 fragments of zygomatic arch.
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Muscardinus sp. Kaup 1829 dormouse
1 incomplete mandible.
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Oryctolagus lacosti2 rabbit
5 lower incisors, 8 maxillae, 20 mandibles, 1 scapula, 1 proximal and 1 distal humerus, 2 proximal ulnae, 1 distal radius, 1 incomplete cervical vertebra, 1 pelvis, 1 distal femur, 1 incomplete calcaneum, plus metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges.
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Prolagus sp.2 Pomel 1853 pika
5 mandibles, 1 cranium, 13 lower P3, 4 lower I1, 5 upper I1, 2 humerii, 3 radii, 2 ulnae, 1 femur plus metacarpals and metatarsals.
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpa minor2 Freudenberg 1914 mole
4 humerii, 2 radii, 3 ulnae, 2 mandible fragments.
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
"Dicerorhinus etruscus" = Stephanorhinus etruscus
"Dicerorhinus etruscus" = Stephanorhinus etruscus Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
1 lower P2, 1 upper P4 (both deciduous), 2 lower P3, and 2 lower M2. 1 incomplete tooth row.
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus caballus Linnaeus 1758 horse
1 deciduous P3, 1 fragmentary upper P3.
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex bor2 Reumer 1984 long-tailed shrew
1 mandible.
Crocidura kornfeldi2 Kormos 1934 white-toothed shrew
1 mandible fragment with M1 and M3.
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Myotis ex gr. schaubi vesper bat
Myotis del gruppo schaubi-rapax. 4 incomplete mandibles.
Myotis sp. Kaup 1829 vesper bat
3 fragmentary mandibles.
Myotis blythi2 vesper bat
1 maxilla with P4-P3, 4 mandible fragments, 1 upper canine, 1 lower canine.
 Chiroptera - Molossidae
? Tadarida sp. Rafinesque 1814 free-tailed bat
1 mandible fragment with M2-M3.
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus ex gr. etruscus Cuvier 1823 bear
Ursus del gruppo etruscus-arctos. 1 lower M1, 1 distal epiphysis of a 4th metacarpal, 1 mandibular canine.
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis sp. Linnaeus 1758 canine
lower I2 and I3.
 Carnivora - Felidae
Panthera sp. Oken 1816 cat
1 astragalus, 1 proximal 3rd metatarsal, 1 distal 4th metatarsal, 2 second phalanges, 1 proximal femur, 1 mandibular fragment.
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
1 distal first phalanx.
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervus sp. Linnaeus 1758 deer
6 teeth, 2 first phalanges.
Capreolus sp. Gray 1821 roe
1 second phalanx, 1 distal tibia.
Dama sp. Frisch 1775 fallow deer
7 isolated teeth, 1 proximal radius, 1 distal ulna, 2 scaphoids, 2 trapezoids, 3 metapodial condyles, 1 second and 2 third phalanges, 1 distal femur and 1 distal tibia, 1 calcaneum and 1 incomplete astragalus.