USGS 10991 - Courbaril Member, Point Courbaril (Pliocene of Trinidad and Tobago)

Where: Trinidad and Tobago (10.2° N, 61.6° W: paleocoordinates 10.2° N, 60.9° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Courbaril Member (Morne l'Enfer Formation), Early/Lower Pliocene (5.3 - 3.6 Ma)

• Collection is from the Courbaril Sand and Clay Member of the Upper Morne l'Enfer Formation. The Courbaril fauna is considered to be of early Pliocene age and is probably slightly older than the Matura fauna.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: shoreface; poorly lithified sandstone and claystone

• The assemblage as a whole points to a nearshore environment, with some brackish influence (compared with Melajo Clay assemblages).
• Poor reporting of lithologies. Named as the "Courbaril Sand and Clay Member", so these lithologies are assigned.

Size class: macrofossils

Reposited in the PRI, USNM

Collection methods: quarrying,

• All material descibed in this report is reposited in the Naturhistorisches Mueum, Basel, or the USNM. Additional material collection from this unit is found at PRI.

Primary reference: P. Jung. 1969. Miocene and Pliocene mollusks from Trinidad. Bulletins of American Paleontology 55(247):293-697 [A. Miller/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 60409: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 14.05.2006

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Exhaustive for Mollusca. Crab claws, corals, fish teeth, and scarce foraminifera also exist in the unit, though are not listed. Van de Bold (1963) also lists ostracords from several localities.
Bivalvia
 Arcida - Arcidae
 Arcida - Noetiidae
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Aequipecten (Plagioctenium) sp." = Argopecten
"Aequipecten (Plagioctenium) sp." = Argopecten Monterosato 1889 calico scallop
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia simplex d'Orbigny 1845 jingle
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama cf. macerophylla2 Gmelin 1791 jewel box
[entered as Chama macrophylla]
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Chione (Nioche) veatchiana Maury 1912 venus clam
"Chione (Lirophora) sanctidavidis" = Lirophora venus clam
Dosinia (Dosinia) sp. Scopoli 1777 venus clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
"Moerella (Moerella) elinguis" = Tellina (Moerella) tellin clam
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Abra cf. aequalis Say 1822 abra
Semele aff. anteriocosta Vokes 1938 clam
Semele laevis Sowerby 1833 clam
Subspecies: Semele laevis costaricensis
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Trachycardium (Dallocardia) sanctidavidis" = Dallocardia, Trigoniocardia (Trigoniocardia) maturensis
"Trachycardium (Dallocardia) sanctidavidis" = Dallocardia cockle
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
"Lucina (Lucinisca) roigi" = Lucinisca
"Lucina (Lucinisca) roigi" = Lucinisca clam
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Nuculana (Saccella) ludificans" = Saccella
"Nuculana (Saccella) ludificans" = Saccella pointed nut clam
Gastropoda
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
 Triphoroidea - Triphoridae
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
"Anachis (Costoanachis) obesa" = Parvanachis obesa, "Strombina (Sincola) crassilabrum" = Sincola (Sincola) crassilabrum, Anachis (Anachis) asphaltoda
"Anachis (Costoanachis) obesa" = Parvanachis obesa Adams 1845 snail
"Strombina (Sincola) crassilabrum" = Sincola (Sincola) crassilabrum Guppy 1874 snail
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassarius (Phrontis) vibex" = Nassarius (Nassarius) vibex Say 1822 snail
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
Prunum (Prunum) dallianum Maury 1912 margin shell
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Cymia brightoniana" = Cymia (Cymia) brightoniana Maury 1925 murex snail
Chicoreus (Triplex) cornurectus1 Guppy 1876 murex snail
Thais (Stramonita) cf. haemostoma Linnaeus 1767 murex snail
Risomurex galbensis murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
Ithycythara sp. Woodring 1928 snail
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
"Natica (Naticarius) aff. canrena" = Naticarius canrena
"Natica (Naticarius) aff. canrena" = Naticarius canrena Linnaeus 1758 moon snail
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
Calyptraea centralis Conrad 1841 slipper shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
Cerithium harrisi, "Bittium (Bittiolum) fretense" = Bittiolum
Cerithium harrisi cerith snail
"Bittium (Bittiolum) fretense" = Bittiolum cerith snail
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
"Neritina (Vitta) cf. virginia" = Neritina virginea
"Neritina (Vitta) cf. virginia" = Neritina virginea Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
"Architectonica (Pseudotorinia) cf. semidecussata" = Pseudotorinia
"Architectonica (Pseudotorinia) cf. semidecussata" = Pseudotorinia snail
 Fissurelloidea - Fissurellidae
Scaphopoda
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae