Sutton, Suffolk [Red Crag] (Pliocene of the United Kingdom)

Where: England, United Kingdom (52.8° N, 1.5° E: paleocoordinates 52.8° N, 1.2° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Red Crag Formation, Late/Upper Pliocene (3.6 - 2.6 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From the Red Crag, which is regionally overlies the Coralline Crag. AGE: Late Pliocene, according to Rayner, 1981 on the basis of foraminiferal and palynological biostratigraphy. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: From unknown position within formation.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: coastal; unlithified siliciclastic sediments

• ENVIRONMENT: Shallow marine siliciclastic.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Not stated in text, but siliciclastic based on observation of specimens. LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, based on observation and figured specimens.

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: original aragonite, original calcite

Collection methods: COLLECTOR: Not stated, but probably Stearns Wood, c. 1840's-1870's. REPOSITORY: Not stated in text.

Primary reference: S. V. Wood. 1848. A monograph of the Crag Mollusca or, descriptions of shells from the middle and upper Tertiaries of the East of England. Part 1. Univalves 1-208 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 84759: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 10.11.2008, edited by Pete Wagner

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Exhaustive for mollusca. Other volumes when entered will include bryozoa, brachiopoda, and anthozoa. NOMENCLATURE: Authoritative publication, but with antiquated nomenclature, which is revised where possible through more recent sources.
 Arcida - Arcidae
Arca lactea3 Linnaeus 1767 ark
Arca tetragona3 Poli 1795 ark
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten maximus" = Pecten maxima3, "Pecten pusio" = Talochlamys pusio3, "Pecten tigrinus" = Palliolum tigrinum3, "Pecten dubius" = Aequipecten opercularis3, "Pecten gracilis" = Aequipecten opercularis3
"Pecten maximus" = Pecten maxima3 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Pecten pusio" = Talochlamys pusio3 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Pecten tigrinus" = Palliolum tigrinum3 Müller 1776 scallop
"Pecten dubius" = Aequipecten opercularis3 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Pecten gracilis" = Aequipecten opercularis3 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
"Anomia patelliformis" = Monia patelliformis3
"Anomia patelliformis" = Monia patelliformis3 Linnaeus 1773 scallop
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea princeps3 Woods 1850 oyster
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus edulis2 Linnaeus 1758 mussel
SUBSPECIES: Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis
"Modiola modiolus" = Modiolus (Modiolus) modiolus3 Linnaeus 1758 mussel
 Carditida - Astartidae
Astarte compressa3 Montague 1808 clam
Astarte sulcata3 Da Costa 1778 clam
Astarte crebrilirata3 Woods 1850 clam
Astarte gracilis3 Golfuss 1837 clam
Astarte incrassata3 Brocchi 1814 clam
Astarte digitaria3 Linnaeus 1767 clam
"Astarte obliquata" = Astarte (Digitariopsis) obliquata3 Sowerby 1817 clam
"Astarte burtinii" = Astarte (Digitariopsis) obliquata burtinea3 De la Jonkaire 1823 clam
Astarte mutabilis3 Wood 1840 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
Cardita orbicularis3 Sowerby 1825 clam
Cardita chamaeformis3 Sowerby 1825 clam
Cardita senilis3 Lamarck 1805 clam
Cardita scalaris3 Sowerby 1825 clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
"Corbula striata" = Caryocorbula striata3 Lamarck 1801 clam
 Pholadida - Myidae
"Mya arenaria" = Mya (Arenomya) arenaria3, "Mya truncata" = Mya (Mya) truncata3
"Mya arenaria" = Mya (Arenomya) arenaria3 Linnaeus 1758 softshell clam
"Mya truncata" = Mya (Mya) truncata3 Linnaeus 1758 softshell clam
 Pholadida - Pholadidae
"Pholas crispata" = Zirfaea crispata3, "Pholas cylindrica" = Barnea (Barnea) cylindrica3
"Pholas crispata" = Zirfaea crispata3 Linnaeus 1758 clam
"Pholas cylindrica" = Barnea (Barnea) cylindrica3 Sowerby 1818 clam
 Pholadida - Teredinidae
 Cardiida - Gastrochaenidae
"Gastrochaena dubia" = Gastrochaena (Rocellaria) dubia3
"Gastrochaena dubia" = Gastrochaena (Rocellaria) dubia3 Pennant 1777 clam
 Cardiida -
Trigonella plana3 da Costa 1778 clam
Lucinopsis lajonkairii3 Payraudeau 1826 clam
"Astarte basterotii" = Isocrassina basteroti3 De la Jonkaire 1823 clam
 Cardiida - Kelliidae
"Lepton deltoideum" = Bornia (Bornia) deltoidea3
"Lepton deltoideum" = Bornia (Bornia) deltoidea3 Wood 1840 clam
 Cardiida - Arcticidae
"Cyprina rustica" = Pygocardia rustica3, "Cyprina islandica" = Arctica islandica3
"Cyprina rustica" = Pygocardia rustica3 Sowerby 1818 clam
"Cyprina islandica" = Arctica islandica3 Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama gryphoides3 Linnaeus 1758 jewel box
 Cardiida - Glossidae
Isocardia cor3 Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Cardiida - Mesodesmatidae
"Mactra deaurata" = Mesodesma deauratum3
"Mactra deaurata" = Mesodesma deauratum3 Turton 1822 clam
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Mactra truncata3, Mactra constricta n. sp.3, Mactra solida3, Mactra ovalis3, Mactra stultorum3, Lutraria lutraria3, "Mactra subtruncata" = Spisula subtruncata3, "Mactra obtruncata" = Spisula obtruncata3, "Mactra arcuata" = Spisula arcuata3
Mactra truncata3 Montague 1808 clam
Mactra constricta n. sp.3 Woods 1850 clam
Mactra solida3 Linnaeus 1758 clam
Mactra ovalis3 Sowerby 1817 clam
Mactra stultorum3 Linnaeus 1758 clam
Lutraria lutraria3 Linnaeus 1767 clam
"Mactra subtruncata" = Spisula subtruncata3 da Costa 1778 clam
"Mactra obtruncata" = Spisula obtruncata3 Woods 1850 clam
"Mactra arcuata" = Spisula arcuata3 Sowerby 1817 clam
 Cardiida - Ungulinidae
"Diplodonta rotundata" = Diplodonta (Diplodonta) rotundata3 Montagu 1803 clam
Diplodonta dilatata3 Wood 1840 clam
Diplodonta astartea3 Nyst 1835 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Venus fasciata" = Clausinella fasciata3, Tapes virginea3, "Venus imbricata" = Timoclea imbricata3, "Venus ovata" = Timoclea ovata3, Artemis lentiformis3, "Cytherea rudis" = Pitar (Pitar) rudis3, "Circe minima" = Gouldia (Gouldia) minima3
"Venus fasciata" = Clausinella fasciata3 da Costa 1778 venus clam
Tapes virginea3 Linnaeus 1767 venus clam
"Venus imbricata" = Timoclea imbricata3 Sowerby 1826 venus clam
"Venus ovata" = Timoclea ovata3 Pennant 1777 venus clam
Artemis lentiformis3 Sowerby 1818 venus clam
"Cytherea rudis" = Pitar (Pitar) rudis3 Poli 1795 venus clam
"Circe minima" = Gouldia (Gouldia) minima3 Montagu 1803 venus clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax trunculus3 Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
Gastrana laminosa3 Sowerby 1827 tellin clam
Tellina benedenii3 Nsyt and Westendorp 1839 tellin clam
Tellina lata3 Gmelin 1788 tellin clam
"Tellina crassa" = Arcopagia (Arcopagia) crassa3 Pennant 1777 tellin clam
"Tellina obliqua" = Macoma (Macoma) obliqua3 Sowerby 1817 tellin clam
"Tellina praetenuis" = Macoma (Macoma) praetenuis3 Leathes in Woodward 1830 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Abra alba3 Wood 1802 abra
Abra obovalis3 Wood 1840 abra
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
Cardium angustatum3 Sowerby 1821 cockle
Cardium nodosum3 Montague 1803 cockle
Cardium nodosulum3 Wood 1840 cockle
Cardium venustum3 Wood 1840 cockle
Cardium interruptum3 Woods 1850 cockle
"Cardium parkinsoni" = Laevicardium (Dinocardium) parkinsoni3 Sowerby 1814 cockle
"Cardium echinatum" = Acanthocardia (Acanthocardia) echinata3 Linnaeus 1767 cockle
"Cardium groenlandicum" = Serripes (Serripes) groenlandicus3 Mohr 1786 cockle
 Cardiida - Galeommatidae
"Kellia ambigua" = Laseina ambigua3
"Kellia ambigua" = Laseina ambigua3 Nyst and Westendorp 1839 clam
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
"Saxicava arctica" = Hiatella (Hiatella) arctica3 Linnaeus 1767 clam
"Saxicava rugosa" = Hiatella3 clam
 Solenida - Solenidae
Solen siliqua3 Linnaeus 1767 clam
Solen ensis3 Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Solenida - Pharidae
"Solen gladiolus" = Ensis macha3, Cultellus tenuis3
"Solen gladiolus" = Ensis macha3 Molina 1782 clam
Cultellus tenuis3 Philippi 1836 clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
"Loripes divaricata" = Lucinella divaricata3
"Loripes divaricata" = Lucinella divaricata3 Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
"Nucula nucleus" = Nucula (Nucula) nucleus3, "Nucula cobboldiae" = Acila (Truncacila) cobboldae3
"Nucula nucleus" = Nucula (Nucula) nucleus3 Linnaeus 1758 nut clam
"Nucula cobboldiae" = Acila (Truncacila) cobboldae3 Linnaeus 1767 divaricate nutclam
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
Leda caudata3 Donovan 1802 pointed nut clam
 Protobranchia - Yoldiidae
"Leda myalis" = Yoldia (Yoldia) myalis3
"Leda myalis" = Yoldia (Yoldia) myalis3 Couthouy 1838 clam
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
"Scalaria groenlandica" = Epitonium greenlandicum, "Scalaria trevelyana" = Epitonium trevelyana
"Scalaria groenlandica" = Epitonium greenlandicum Perry 1811 wentletrap
"Scalaria trevelyana" = Epitonium trevelyana Johnston 1841 wentletrap
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
Columbella sulcata Sowerby 1823 snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
"Buccinum dalei" = Liomesus dalei, "Trophon (Sipho) islandicus" = Colus islandicus2, Buccinum undatum, Nassa monensis
"Buccinum dalei" = Liomesus dalei Sowerby 1825 true whelk
"Trophon (Sipho) islandicus" = Colus islandicus2 Mohr 1786 true whelk
Buccinum undatum Linnaeus 1758 true whelk
Nassa monensis Forbes 1842 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassa labiosa" = Amyclina labiosa, "Nassa conglobata" = Demoulia conglobata2, "Nassa consociata" = Nassarius (Tritonella) consociatus, "Nassa incrassata" = Nassarius incrassatus, "Nassa prismatica" = Nassarius prysmaticus, "Nassa propinqua" = Nassarius (Hinia) propinquus
"Nassa labiosa" = Amyclina labiosa Sowerby 1824 snail
"Nassa conglobata" = Demoulia conglobata2 Brocchi 1814 snail
"Nassa consociata" = Nassarius (Tritonella) consociatus Wood 1848 snail
"Nassa incrassata" = Nassarius incrassatus Müller 1773 snail
"Nassa prismatica" = Nassarius prysmaticus Brocchi 1814 snail
"Nassa propinqua" = Nassarius (Hinia) propinquus Sowerby 1824 snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
"Trophon costiferum" = Buccinofusus costiferum
"Trophon costiferum" = Buccinofusus costiferum Wood 1848 snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Cancellaria costellifera Sowerby 1818 snail
Cancellaria subangulosa Wood 1842 snail
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
"Cancellaria mitraeformis" = Lyria mitraeformis
"Cancellaria mitraeformis" = Lyria mitraeformis Lamarck 1811 volute
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Trophon scalariforme Gould 1841 murex snail
Trophon alveolatum Sowerby 1826 murex snail
"Purpura tetragona" = Spinucella tetragona Sowerby 1825 murex snail
Murex torturosus Sowerby 1823 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
"Clavatula nebula" = Mangelia nebula
"Clavatula nebula" = Mangelia nebula Montagu 1803 snail
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
"Pleurotoma carinata" = Spirotropis confusa
"Pleurotoma carinata" = Spirotropis confusa Seguenza 1880 snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
Clavatula costata Da Costa 1778 turrid
Clavatula linearis Montagu 1803 turrid
Clavatula plicifera Wood 1842 turrid
Clavatula mitrula Sowerby 1822 turrid
"Pleurotoma semicolon" = Crassispira (Crassispira) semicolon Sowerby 1816 turrid
Pleurotoma turricula Montagu 1803 turrid
Pleurotoma intorta Brocchi 1814 turrid
Pleurotoma senilis2 Wood 1877 turrid
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Clavatula trevelliana" = Curtitoma reticulata, "Clavatula turricula" = Propebela turricula
"Clavatula trevelliana" = Curtitoma reticulata Brown 1827 cone shell
"Clavatula turricula" = Propebela turricula Montagu 1803 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra inversa Nyst 1843 auger snail
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
Fusus porrectus Solander 1766 true conch
COMMENTS: Reworked from London Clay (Eocene)?
Fusus intortus Lamarck 1803 true conch
COMMENTS: Reworked from London Clay (Eocene)?
Rostellaria plurimacosta Wood 1848 true conch
 Stromboidea - Aporrhaidae
"Aporrhais pespelicani" = Aporrhais pespelecani
"Aporrhais pespelicani" = Aporrhais pespelecani Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
Eulima naumanni2 von Könen 1867 snail
 Velutinoidea - Triviidae
"Cypraea retusa" = Trivia retusa, "Cypraea avellana" = Niveria avellana, "Cypraea angliae" = Niveria angliae, "Erato maugeriae" = Hespererato maugeriae, Erato britannica1
"Cypraea retusa" = Trivia retusa Sowerby 1823 snail
"Cypraea avellana" = Niveria avellana Sowerby 1823 snail
"Cypraea angliae" = Niveria angliae Wood 1848 snail
"Erato maugeriae" = Hespererato maugeriae Gray 1832 snail
Erato britannica1 Schilder 1933 snail
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
"Cassidaria bicarinata" = Galeodea bicatenata
"Cassidaria bicarinata" = Galeodea bicatenata Sowerby 1815 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Potamididae
"Cerithium tricinctum" = Potamides (Ptychopotamides) tricinctus
"Cerithium tricinctum" = Potamides (Ptychopotamides) tricinctus Brocchi 1814 horn snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Turritella taurinensis2 Michelotti 1847 turret shell
Turritella communis Risso 1826 turret shell
"Turritella imbricataria" = Haustator imbricataria Lamarck 1804 turret shell
 Heterostropha - Ringiculidae
Ringicula ventricosa Sowerby 1823 snail
Ringicula buccinea Sowerby 1823 snail
 Pyramidelloidea - Pyramidellidae
"Chemnitzia internodula" = Turbonilla (Pyrgolidium) internodula
"Chemnitzia internodula" = Turbonilla (Pyrgolidium) internodula Wood 1848 snail