Family Cidaridae Gray 1825 (pencil urchin)

Echinoidea - Cidaroida - Cidaridae

Full reference: J. E. Gray. 1825. An attempt to divide the Echinida, or Sea Eggs, into natural families. Annals of Philosophy, new series 10:423-431

Parent taxon: Cidaridea according to A. Kroh and A. B. Smith 2010

See also Clark and Twitchell 1915, Donovan 1993, Donovan et al. 2005, Fell 1966, Grant and Hertlein 1938, Gravesen 1993, Nisiyama 1966, Smith 1991, Smith 1995 and Smith 2009

Sister taxa: Ctenocidaridae, Goniocidarinae, Paurocidaris, Plegiocidaris, Psychocidaridae

Subtaxa: Centrocidaris Cidarinae Cidarini Cidaris Dorocidaris Hesperocidaris Prionocidaris Rhabdocidarinae Stereocidarinae Stylocidarinae Triassicidaris

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Ecology: slow-moving low-level epifaunal grazer-omnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Australia (2 collections), Barbados (1), Ecuador (2), France (1), Jamaica (1), Japan (2), Mexico (9), Micronesia (1), Vanuatu (1)

• Pliocene of Australia (1), Ecuador (2), Fiji (2), Haiti (1), Japan (1), Portugal (1), United States (4: California, Florida)

• Miocene of Algeria (1), Australia (2), Austria (3), Belgium (1), Brazil (5), Cuba (4), Cyprus (2), Egypt (3), Fiji (11), Germany (1), Indonesia (3), Italy (6), Jamaica (1), Malta (1), Mexico (1), Micronesia (1), New Zealand (9), Spain (1), Ukraine (1), United States (4: California, Florida), Vanuatu (1)

• Oligocene of Germany (1), India (2), Jamaica (1), New Zealand (1), Somalia (1), United States (5: California, Georgia, Puerto Rico, Texas)

• Eocene to Oligocene of United States (1: Georgia)

• Eocene of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1), Cuba (4), Egypt (3), France (2), Libya (2), New Zealand (9), Poland (3), United States (38: Alabama, California, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina)

• Paleocene of Austria (2), Belgium (2), Denmark (1), Egypt (1), France (1), the Netherlands (3), United States (15: Alabama, California, New Jersey)

• Cretaceous to Paleogene of the Netherlands (2)

• Cretaceous of Albania (3), Algeria (2), Antarctica (2), Belgium (12), Brazil (5), the Czech Republic (5), Egypt (5), France (33), Germany (3), Hungary (6), Jamaica (4), Japan (1), the Netherlands (15), Portugal (14), Saudi Arabia (6), South Africa (1), Spain (13), Sweden (1), Switzerland (14), Tunisia (1), Ukraine (1), the United Kingdom (15), United States (24: Alabama, California, Mississippi, New Jersey, Texas), Venezuela (2), Yemen (1)

• Jurassic to Cretaceous of Japan (1)

• Jurassic of Algeria (2), Armenia (1), Belgium (1), Egypt (1), Eritrea (1), France (22), Germany (3), Italy (1), Japan (2), Morocco (1), New Zealand (1), Portugal (3), Saudi Arabia (1), Serbia and Montenegro (1), Spain (16), Tanzania (1), Tunisia (1), the United Kingdom (6), United States (2: California), Yemen (1)

• Triassic to Jurassic of the United Kingdom (1)

• Triassic of China (15), Germany (5), Greece (1), Hungary (6), Italy (33), Peru (3), Poland (1), Slovakia (1), Slovenia (1), Spain (1), United States (4: Alaska, California)

Total: 525 collections including 686 occurrences

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