Family Hemiasteridae Clark 1917 (heart urchin)

Echinoidea - Spatangoida - Hemiasteridae

Alternative spelling: Hemiasteroidae

Full reference: H. L. Clark. 1917. Hawaiian and other Pacific Echini. The Echinoneidae, Nucleolitidae, Urechinida, Echinocorythidae, Calymnidae, Pourtalesiidae, Palaeostomatidae, Aeropside, Palaeopneustidae, Hemiasteridae, and Spatangidae. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 46:81-283

Parent taxon: Spatangoida according to A. Kroh and A. B. Smith 2010

See also Berndt 2003, Donovan 1993, Fischer 1966, Grant and Hertlein 1938, Manso and Andrade 2008, McNamara 1987, Smith 1991 and Smith 1995

Sister taxa: Allotoxaster, Amoraster, Apoxypetalum, Archaeopneustes, Asterostomatina, Barnumia, Brissidina, Brissoides, Cagaster, Cestobrissus, Cottreaucorys, Echinocoridae, Enichaster, Gonzalezaster, Gymnopatagus, Hemiasterina, Homoeopetalus, Hypselaster, Kertaster, Leymeriaster, Micrasterina, Mortensenaster, Mundaster, Murraypneustes, Neoproraster, Niponaster, Nudobrissus, Orthaster, Palaeostomidae, Paleopneustina, Paraheteraster, Peraspatangus, Peroniaster, Pictaviechinus, Pliotoxaster, Pseudogibbaster, Pseudolinthia, Pseudowashitaster, Pusillaster, Royasendia, Schizobrissus, Somalechinus, Somaliasteridae, Spatagobrissus, Tessieria, Toxasteridae, Toxasterina, Wuarnia

Subtaxa: Cheopsia Crucibrissus Distefanaster Ditremaster Eoagassizia Hemiaster Heterolampas Holcopneustes Hypsopatagus Isopetalum Mecaster Palhemiaster Periaster Psephoaster Tripylaster Vomeraster Washitaster

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Ecology: slow-moving shallow infaunal deposit feeder-detritivore

Distribution:

• Pliocene of Papua New Guinea (1 collection)

• Miocene of Australia (7), Austria (1), Egypt (1), India (1), Italy (4), New Caledonia (1)

• Oligocene of Australia (4)

• Eocene of Australia (2), Cuba (2), India (1), Pakistan (1), Spain (1), the United Kingdom (5), United States (3: Alabama, California, Florida)

• Paleocene to Eocene of Australia (1)

• Paleocene of Austria (2), Denmark (1), Egypt (1), France (1), Libya (1), Spain (1), United States (8: Alabama, California, New Jersey)

• Cretaceous to Paleogene of the Netherlands (4)

• Cretaceous of Algeria (1), Antarctica (1), Belgium (8), Brazil (156), the Czech Republic (1), Egypt (51), France (53), Germany (4), Greenland (1), Guatemala (1), India (1), Israel (1), Jamaica (5), Japan (2), Jordan (3), Madagascar (5), Mexico (12), Mozambique (4), the Netherlands (6), Nigeria (13), Oman (2), Peru (9), the Russian Federation (2), Saudi Arabia (3), South Africa (1), Spain (30), Switzerland (1), Tunisia (1), Turkey (1), USSR (2), the United Arab Emirates (1), the United Kingdom (5), United States (120: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Delaware, Mississippi, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Wyoming)

Total: 562 collections including 640 occurrences

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