Subfamily Laevicardiinae Keen 1936 (cockle)

Bivalvia - Cardiida - Cardiidae

Parent taxon: Cardiidae according to E. V. Coan and P. Valentich-Scott 2012

See also Bouchet et al. 2010, Carter et al. 2011, Dockery 1982, Schneider 1995, Vokes 1980 and Woodring 1982

Sister taxa: Austrocardium, Cerastoderma, Dochmocardia, Europicardium, Goethemia, Granocardium, Hemicardium, Indocardium, Jurassicardium, Lahilliinae, Monodacna, Nemocardium, Neocardiids, Obsoletiforma, Obsoletiformes, Papillicardium, Papyridea, Paradacna, Parvicardium, Parvidacna, Pascoella, Patagonicardium, Perucardia, Plagiocardium, Protocardiinae, Ringicardium, Sawkinsia, Serripes, Trachycardiinae, Goniocardium

Subtaxa: Discors Fulvia Laevicardium

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Ecology: facultatively mobile infaunal suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Australia (3 collections), the Bahamas (3), Belgium (1), Bermuda (2), Cayman Islands (2), Colombia (1), Costa Rica (1), Cuba (1), Djibouti (1), the Dominican Republic (3), Ecuador (1), Eritrea (1), Iran (1), Ireland (1), Italy (1), Jamaica (1), Japan (10), Kenya (2), Mexico (3), Morocco (2), the Netherlands (2), Panama (1), the Philippines (1), Portugal (3), Spain (1), Sudan (1), Taiwan (1), the United Kingdom (1), United States (53: California, Florida, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina), Uruguay (1), Venezuela (3)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Mexico (1), United States (1: Florida)

• Pliocene of Belgium (7), Colombia (5), Costa Rica (2), the Dominican Republic (9), Ecuador (5), Indonesia (4), Italy (1), Jamaica (4), Japan (8), Mexico (3), the Netherlands (1), Pakistan (3), Panama (9), the Russian Federation (2), Trinidad and Tobago (1), the United Kingdom (5), United States (4: California, Florida, North Carolina), Vanuatu (1), Venezuela (4)

• Miocene to Pliocene of the Dominican Republic (5), Indonesia (1)

• Miocene of Algeria (1), Australia (2), Austria (3), Belgium (6), Brazil (5), Bulgaria (2), Colombia (5), the Dominican Republic (30), France (1), Germany (31), Greece (2), India (1), Indonesia (10), Iran (1), Italy (2), Jamaica (1), Japan (30), Morocco (1), the Netherlands (2), Pakistan (7), Panama (13), Puerto Rico (2), the Russian Federation (13), Slovakia (1), Sri Lanka (2), United States (10: Florida), Vanuatu (1), Venezuela (1)

• Oligocene of Argentina (1), Austria (1), Denmark (2), France (26), Germany (2), Haiti (1), Hungary (3), Japan (1), Pakistan (2), the Russian Federation (5), United States (10: Alaska, Georgia, Mississippi)

• Eocene of Belgium (1), Bulgaria (1), France (1), Germany (1), Hungary (1), India (4), Indonesia (2), Italy (3), New Zealand (1), Pakistan (1), United States (2: Alabama, Mississippi)

• Cretaceous of Japan (6), Spain (1)

Total: 460 collections including 521 occurrences

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