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Craniata -


This is a class of "inarticulate" brachiopods that is unfortunately a homonym with the chordate group Craniata.

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1996Craniata Williams et al. p. 1192
2001Craniata Carlson p. 1111
2006Craniata Skovsted p. 1093
2013Craniata Emig et al. p. 76

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phylumBrachiopodaCuvier 1805
subphylumCraniiformeaPopov et al. 1993

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

A. Williams et al. 1996Brachiopods with calcitic, laminar (tabular) inarticulated shells; valves developed discretely without mantle reversal; larvae lecithotrophic without shell; posterior body wall complete, pedicle not developed, ventral valve attached by larval epithelium; muscle system with a single pair of internal obliques and with paired outside lateral muscles attached anteriorly to the body wall; alimentary tract more or less axial with anus; lophophore initially with median tentacle lost during growth, tentacles in double row in posttrocholophous growth stages only; paired ganglia developed; mantle canal systems without interiomedial vascula terminalia, normally pinnate, containing gonads.
No measurements are available
Composition: high Mg calcitec
Environment: marinec
Locomotion: stationaryp
Attached: yesp
Life habit: low-level epifaunalp
Diet: suspension feederp
Vision: blindc
Comments: laminar calcitec
Created: 2017-03-09 14:09:20
Modified: 2017-03-09 14:09:20
Source: c = class, p = phylum
References: Aberhan et al. 2004, Williams et al. 1996

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Dyeran to the top of the Holocene or 516.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 513.0 Ma

Collections (1078 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Dyeran516.0 - 513.0Greenland Craniopsidae indet. (49464 49473)
Tremadoc485.4 - 477.7China (JiLin) Orthisocrania sp. (21143)
Tremadoc485.4 - 477.7Czech Republic Petrocrania sp. (192830)
Ordovician485.4 - 443.4USA (New York) Petrocrania sp. (332)
Arenig478.6 - 466.0Spain (Zaragoza) Dinobolus sp. (21075)
Arenig478.6 - 466.0United Kingdom (Wales) Petrocrania sp., Craniidae indet. (69096)
Arenig478.6 - 466.0China (GanSu) Orthisocrania sp. (8568)
Volkhov471.8 - 468.1Russian Federation Pseudocrania petropolitana (157085 157104 157105 157106 157107 157108 157109 157110 157111 157112 157113 157114 157115 157117 157118 157119 157120 157121 157122 157123 157124 157127 157128 157130 157131 157132 157133 157134 157135 157136 157139 157141)
Middle Ordovician470.0 - 458.4USA (New York) Petrocrania sp. (335)
Kunda468.1 - 463.5Sweden Pseudocrania sp. (188213 188217 188218 188225 188234 188268 188280)
Kunda468.1 - 463.5Estonia Pseudocrania antiquissima (56202)
Chazyan468.1 - 460.9USA (Vermont) Petrocrania prona (101749)
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4Argentina (San Juan) Philhedra pauciradiata (195044)
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4Canada (Newfoundland) Orthisocrania sp. (185947)
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4Iran Pseudocrania insperata (186095)
Llanvirn466.0 - 460.9China (QingHai) Petrocrania sp. (8683 23596)
Chazy466.0 - 457.5USA (New York) Crania prona (56215 172320) Petrocrania prona (171794 172144)
Aurelucian460.9 - 457.5United Kingdom (Scotland) Petrocrania sp. 1 (165033)
Costonian460.9 - 457.5United Kingdom (Scotland) Obolellina sp. (76076)
Costonian - Harnagian460.9 - 455.8Sweden Pseudocrania sp. (2767)