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Brachiosaurus

Reptilia - Brachiosauridae

Taxonomy
Brachiosaurus was named by Riggs (1903).

It was synonymized subjectively with Astrodon by Kingham (1962).

It was assigned to Sauropoda by Janensch (1914); to Cetiosauridae by Huene (1908), Huene (1908), Huene (1909), von Zittel (1911) and Lull (1924); to Sauropoda by Joleaud (1922) and Huene (1958); to Brachyosauridae by Langston (1974); to Brachiosaurinae by Huene (1927), Huene (1927), Huene (1929), Romer (1956), Steel (1970), Swinton (1970), Coombs and Molnar (1981), Santafé et al. (1982) and Sanz (1986); to Camarasauridae by Dong (1998); to Titanosauriformes by Salgado et al. (1997), Smith et al. (2001), Wilson (2002), Apesteguía (2005), Apesteguía (2005), Curry Rogers (2005), Allain and Aquesbi (2008), Suteethorn et al. (2010), Whitlock (2011), Sekiya (2011), Mannion and Calvo (2011), Filippi et al. (2011) and Xing et al. (2015); and to Brachiosauridae by Riggs (1904), Williston (1905), Lull (1919), Nopcsa (1928), Lapparent (1943), Lapparent (1960), Tatarinov (1964), Romer (1966), Galton (1977), Molnar (1980), Russell (1984), Bonaparte (1986), Bonaparte (1986), Carroll (1988), McIntosh (1990), Miller et al. (1991), Salgado (1993), Salgado and Calvo (1993), Britt and Naylor (1994), Upchurch (1995), Upchurch (1995), Jacobs et al. (1996), McIntosh (1997), Dodson (1997), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Wilson and Sereno (1998), Bonaparte (1999), Maxwell and Cifelli (2000), Thulborn (2002), Upchurch et al. (2004), Royo-Torres et al. (2006), Chure et al. (2006), Moser et al. (2006), Rose (2007), Taylor (2009), You and Li (2009), Ksepka and Norell (2010), D'Emic (2012), Mannion et al. (2013), D'Emic (2013), Carballido et al. (2015), D'Emic et al. (2016), Salisbury et al. (2016) and Mannion et al. (2017).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1903Brachiosaurus Riggs p. 299
1904Brachiosaurus Riggs
1905Brachiosaurus Williston p. 345
1908Brachiosaurus Huene p. 296
1909Brachiosaurus Huene p. 14
1911Brachiosaurus von Zittel p. 285
1914Brachiosaurus Janensch p. 82
1919Brachiosaurus Lull p. 41
1922Brachiosaurus Joleaud p. 61
1924Brachiosaurus Lull p. 234
1927Brachiosaurus Huene p. 123
1928Brachiosaurus Nopcsa p. 184
1929Brachiosaurus Huene p. 116
1943Brachiosaurus Lapparent p. 17
1956Brachiosaurus Romer p. 621
1958Brachiosaurus Huene p. 206
1960Brachiosaurus Lapparent p. 40
1964Brachiosaurus Tatarinov p. 547
1966Brachiosaurus Romer p. 370
1970Brachiosaurus Steel p. 68
1970Brachiosaurus Swinton p. 170
1974Brachyosaurus Langston p. 87
1977Brachiosaurus Galton p. 230
1980Brachiosaurus Molnar p. 138
1981Brachiosaurus Coombs, Jr. and Molnar p. 357
1982Brachiosaurus Santafé et al. p. 96
1984Brachiosaurus Russell p. 22
1986Brachiosaurus Bonaparte p. 255
1986Brachiosaurus Sanz p. 85
1988Brachiosaurus Carroll
1990Brachiosaurus McIntosh p. 381
1991Brachiosaurus Miller et al. p. 40
1993Brachiosaurus Salgado p. 269
1993Brachiosaurus Salgado and Calvo p. 216
1994Brachiosaurus Britt and Naylor p. 260
1995Brachiosaurus Upchurch p. 253
1996Brachiosaurus Jacobs et al. p. 604
1997Brachiosaurus Dodson p. 11
1997Brachiosaurus McIntosh p. 656
1997Brachiosaurus Salgado et al. p. 25 fig. 19
1997Brachiosaurus Sereno p. 453
1998Brachiosaurus Dong p. 84
1998Brachiosaurus Sereno p. 63
1998Brachiosaurus Wilson and Sereno pp. 20-21
1999Brachiosaurus Bonaparte pp. 149-150
2000Brachiosaurus Maxwell and Cifelli p. 22
2001Brachiosaurus Smith et al. p. 1705 fig. 3
2002Brachiosaurus Thulborn p. 155
2002Brachiosaurus Wilson p. 240 fig. 13
2004Brachiosaurus Upchurch et al. p. 267
2005Brachiosaurus Apesteguía p. 257
2005Brachiosaurus Curry Rogers p. 69
2006Brachiosaurus Chure et al. p. 236
2006Brachiosaurus Moser et al. p. 45 fig. 10
2006Brachiosaurus Royo-Torres et al. p. 1926 fig. 3
2007Brachiosaurus Rose pp. 41-42 figs. 31-32
2008Brachiosaurus Allain and Aquesbi p. 403
2009Brachiosaurus Taylor p. 798
2009Brachiosaurus You and Li
2010Brachiosaurus Ksepka and Norell
2010Brachiosaurus Suteethorn et al.
2011Brachiosaurus Filippi et al.
2011Brachiosaurus Mannion and Calvo
2011Brachiosaurus Sekiya
2011Brachiosaurus Whitlock
2012Brachiosaurus D'Emic
2013Brachiosaurus D'Emic
2013Brachiosaurus Mannion et al.
2015Brachiosaurus Carballido et al.
2015Brachiosaurus Xing et al.
2016Brachiosaurus D'Emic et al.
2016Brachiosaurus Salisbury et al. p. 125
2017Brachiosaurus Mannion et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
RankNameAuthor
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
Neosauropoda
Macronaria
Titanosauriformes
familyBrachiosauridae
genusBrachiosaurus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteinfrao
Entire body: yesg
Adult length: 10 to < 100infrao
Adult width: 10 to < 100infrao
Adult height: 10 to < 100infrao
Maximum body mass: 30000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 10000 kgg
Thickness: thickinfrao
Architecture: compact or denseinfrao
Form: sphericalinfrao
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partsinfrao
Grouping: gregariousinfrao
Environment: terrestrialinfrao
Locomotion: actively mobileinfrao
Life habit: ground dwellinginfrao
Diet: herbivoreinfrao
Reproduction: oviparousinfrao
Dispersal: direct/internalinfrao
Dispersal 2: mobileinfrao
Created: 2005-08-24 13:36:53
Modified: 2005-08-24 15:36:53
Source: g = genus, infrao = infraorder
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Late/Upper Kimmeridgian to the top of the Early/Lower Tithonian or 155.70000 to 145.00000 Ma

Collections (16 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Oxfordian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian161.2 - 150.8USA (Wyoming) B. sp. (126540)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Wyoming) Sauropoda indet. (46465)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Utah) B. sp. (58514 96826)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Colorado) B. altithorax (56683) B. sp. (28366 49623 56684)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) B. sp. (22648) Sauropoda indet. (39253)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen) B. sp. (182492)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Oklahoma) B. sp. (49338)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0Tanzania (Lindi) B. sp. (48349) Dinosauria indet. (121241)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0Zimbabwe (Mashonaland North) B. sp. (49100)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0USA (Colorado) B. sp. (71476)