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Camarasaurus

Reptilia -

Taxonomy
Camarasaurus was named by Cope (1877). It is the type genus of Camarasaurinae.

It was assigned to Cetiosauridae by Cope (1891) and Cope (1898); to Atlantosauridae by Sauvage (1882), Dollo (1884) and Hay (1902); to Opisthocoelia by Osborn and Mook (1919); to Sauropoda by Williston (1878), Seeley (1879) and Joleaud (1922); to Morosauridae by Zittel (1890), Marsh (1895), Marsh (1896), Marsh (1898), Huene (1908), Huene (1908), Huene (1909), von Zittel (1911), Lull (1924), Huene (1927), Huene (1927) and Huene (1929); to Brachiosauridae by Tatarinov (1964) and Romer (1966); to Camarasaurinae by Nopcsa (1928), Romer (1956), Steel (1970), Swinton (1970), Coombs and Molnar (1981) and McIntosh (1990); to Brachiosauria by Upchurch (1997); to Camarasauromorpha by Royo-Torres et al. (2006) and Sekiya (2011); to Eusauropoda by Upchurch et al. (2007) and Apaldetti et al. (2013); to Camarasauridae by Cope (1877), Cope (1878), Cope (1878), Lapparent (1943), Galton (1977), McIntosh (1981), Santafé et al. (1982), Rich et al. (1983), Russell (1984), Bonaparte (1986), Sanz (1986), Bonaparte (1986), Carroll (1988), McIntosh (1990), Miller et al. (1991), Mcintosh et al. (1992), Hunt and Lucas (1993), Carpenter and McIntosh (1994), Upchurch (1995), Upchurch (1995), McIntosh et al. (1996), McIntosh et al. (1996), McIntosh (1997), Dodson (1997), Dong (1998), Bonaparte (1999), Upchurch et al. (2004), Ikejiri (2005), Foster (2005), Chure et al. (2006), Moser et al. (2006) and Mocho et al. (2014); and to Macronaria by Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Wilson and Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Sereno et al. (1999), Smith et al. (2001), Wilson (2002), Apesteguía (2005), Apesteguía (2005), Gallina and Apesteguía (2005), Allain and Aquesbi (2008), Suteethorn et al. (2010), Ksepka and Norell (2010), Canudo et al. (2010), Whitlock (2011), D'Emic (2012) and Xing et al. (2015).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1877Camarasaurus Cope pp. 2-3
1877Caulodon Cope pp. 193-194
1878Camarasaurus Cope
1878Morosaurus Marsh p. 242
1878Camerasaurus Williston pp. 44-45
1878Mososaurus Williston pp. 44-45
1879Camarosaurus Seeley p. 183
1879Morosaurus Seeley p. 183
1881Morosaurus Marsh
1882Camarosaurus Sauvage p. 35
1882Morosaurus Sauvage p. 35
1884Camarasaurus Dollo p. 298
1884Morosaurus Dollo p. 298
1884Morosaurus Marsh p. 68
1885Morosaurus Marsh p. 764
1890Morosaurus Zittel p. 709
1890Camarosaurus Zittel p. 711
1890Caulodon Zittel p. 711
1891Camarasaurus Cope p. 43
1895Camarasaurus Marsh
1895Morosaurus Marsh
1895Caulodon Sauvage p. 467
1896Morosaurus Depéret p. 184
1896Camarasaurus Marsh p. 241
1896Morosaurus Marsh p. 241
1896Morosaurus Sauvage p. 48
1897Morosaurus Gadow p. 204
1898Camarasaurus Cope p. 68
1898Camarasaurus Marsh p. 158
1898Morosaurus Marsh p. 158
1902Morosaurus Hay p. 483
1902Caulodon Hay p. 484
1902Camarasaurus Hay p. 485
1902Morosaurus Mansel-Pleydell p. lxxvi
1908Camarosaurus Huene p. 297
1908Morosaurus Huene p. 297
1908Camarasaurus Huene p. 347
1908Morosaurus Huene p. 347
1909Camarasaurus Huene p. 14
1909Morosaurus Huene p. 14
1909Caulodon Huene p. 15
1911Camarosaurus von Zittel p. 287
1911Morosaurus von Zittel p. 287
1911Caulodon von Zittel p. 288
1913Morosaurus Tornier p. 370
1919Uintasaurus Holland p. 38
1919Camarasaurus Osborn and Mook p. 383
1922Camarosaurus Joleaud p. 62
1924Camarasaurus Lull p. 234
1924Morosaurus Lull p. 234
1927Camarasaurus Huene p. 123
1927Uintasaurus Huene p. 125
1927Camarasaurus Huene p. 460
1928Camarasaurus Nopcsa p. 184
1929Camarasaurus Huene p. 117
1929Uintasaurus Huene p. 118
1936Morosaurus Swinton p. 211
1943Camarasaurus Lapparent p. 19
1956Camarasaurus Romer p. 621
1956Uintasaurus Romer p. 622
1956Caulodon Romer p. 624
1964Camarasaurus Tatarinov p. 547
1964Uintasaurus Tatarinov p. 547
1964Caulodon Tatarinov p. 549
1966Camarasaurus Romer p. 370
1970Camarasaurus Steel p. 72
1970Uintasaurus Steel p. 79
1970Caulodon Steel p. 82
1970Camarasaurus Swinton p. 173
1970Uintasaurus Swinton p. 178
1977Camarasaurus Galton p. 230
1981Camarasaurus Coombs, Jr. and Molnar p. 357
1981Camarasaurus McIntosh p. 12
1982Camarasaurus Santafé et al. p. 95
1983Camarasaurus Rich et al. p. 285
1984Camarasaurus Russell p. 22
1986Camarasaurus Bonaparte p. 254
1986Camarasaurus Sanz p. 85
1988Camarasaurus Carroll
1988Cathetosaurus Jensen
1990Camarasaurus McIntosh p. 55
1991Camarasaurus Miller et al. p. 40
1992Camarasaurus Mcintosh et al. p. 164
1993Camarasaurus Hunt and Lucas p. 73
1994Camarasaurus Carpenter and McIntosh p. 273
1995Camarasaurus Upchurch p. 253
1995Cathetosaurus Upchurch p. 253
1995Camarasaurus Upchurch pp. 377-378
1995Cathetosaurus Upchurch p. 378
1996Camarasaurus McIntosh et al. p. 6
1996Camarasaurus McIntosh et al. p. 74
1997Camarasaurus Dodson p. 11
1997Camarasaurus McIntosh p. 656
1997Camarasaurus Sereno p. 442 fig. 4
1997Camarasaurus Upchurch p. 82A
1998Camarasaurus Dong p. 84
1998Camarasaurus Sereno p. 71 fig. 7
1998Camarasaurus Wilson and Sereno p. 54 fig. 44
1999Camarasaurus Bonaparte p. 152
1999Camarasaurus Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
1999Camarasaurus Sereno et al. p. 1346 fig. 4
2001Camarasaurus Smith et al. p. 1705 fig. 3
2002Camarasaurus Wilson p. 240 fig. 13
2004Camarasaurus Upchurch et al. p. 266
2005Camarasaurus Apesteguía p. 257
2005Camarasaurus Foster p. 143
2005Camarasaurus Gallina and Apesteguía p. 159 fig. 5
2005Camarasaurus Ikejiri p. 368
2006Camarasaurus Chure et al. p. 236
2006Camarasaurus Moser et al. pp. 45-46 fig. 10
2006Camarasaurus Royo-Torres et al. p. 1926 fig. 3
2007Camarasaurus Upchurch et al. p. 62 fig. 3
2008Camarasaurus Allain and Aquesbi p. 403
2010Camarasaurus Canudo et al.
2010Camarasaurus Ksepka and Norell
2010Camarasaurus Suteethorn et al.
2011Camarasaurus Sekiya
2011Camarasaurus Whitlock
2012Camarasaurus D'Emic
2013Camarasaurus Apaldetti et al.
2014Camarasaurus Mocho et al.
2015Camarasaurus Xing et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
RankNameAuthor
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
Neosauropoda
Macronaria
genusCamarasaurus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. S. Lull 1924characterized by short, high skull, with very large orbit, nasal openings, and upper and lower temporal fenestrae; a very massive quadrate. Teeth, about 48 in number, large and spatulate, crowned somewhat as in Brontosaurus; about 13 cervicals, 10 or 11 dorsals, 4 or 5 sacrals, and 53 caudals; neural spines of cervicals bifid; dorsals with hyposphene-hypantrum articulations; ischium slender
T. Ikejiri 2005Massive lower and upper jaws; mas- sive vomer; short basipterygoid process; 12 cervical and 12 dorsal vertebrae; bifurcated neural spines in all mid- and posterior- cervical vertebrae (but variable in the anterior cervical vertebrae); U-shaped rather than V-shaped (e.g., diplodocids) neural spines in some dorsal vertebrae; relatively short and massive neural spine in posterior dorsal, sacral, and proximal caudal vertebrae; relatively short tail with about 53 caudal vertebrae; distal end of scapular blade broadly expanded; forelimbs more slender than hindlimb; humero-femoral length ratio ~0.77; two carpal bones (ulnare and radiae); metacarpal III to humerus length ratio ~0.33; pubis massive with short shaft; very slender ischium, especially the distal end; tibio-femoral length ratio ~0.60 (McIntosh 1990a, b; Madsen et al., 1995).
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteinfrao
Entire body: yesg
Adult length: 10 to < 100infrao
Adult width: 10 to < 100infrao
Adult height: 10 to < 100infrao
Maximum body mass: 30000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 10000 kgg
Thickness: thickinfrao
Architecture: compact or denseinfrao
Form: sphericalinfrao
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partsinfrao
Grouping: gregariousinfrao
Environment: terrestrialinfrao
Locomotion: actively mobileinfrao
Life habit: ground dwellinginfrao
Diet: herbivoreinfrao
Reproduction: oviparousinfrao
Dispersal: direct/internalinfrao
Dispersal 2: mobileinfrao
Created: 2005-08-24 13:38:50
Modified: 2005-08-24 15:38:50
Source: g = genus, infrao = infraorder
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Late/Upper Kimmeridgian to the top of the Cenomanian or 155.70000 to 93.90000 Ma

Collections (104 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) C. sp. (62561)
Late/Upper Oxfordian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian161.2 - 150.8USA (Wyoming) C. sp. (126540)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Utah) C. sp. (57913) C. sp., C. lentus, C. supremus (46439)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Wyoming) C. grandis (47065 49577) C. sp. (46465 57903 58510 75453 176983 176984) Morosaurus sp. (46460)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Montana) C. sp. (49624)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Colorado) C. sp. (35293 154924 154925) C. supremus (11925)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) Apatosaurus grandis, Morosaurus impar, Morosaurus robustus, Pleurocoelus montanus (13212) Astrodon johnstoni (52816) C. sp. (39337 39342 39344 39347 39370 48837 49627 49628 49636 55320 55483 56167 57893 57894 57895 57901 58507 58508 58509 58511 192707) C. sp., Astrodon johnstoni (52815) Morosaurus agilis (22648) Morosaurus grandis (13214 39340) Morosaurus sp. (12816 13352) Morosaurus sp., Morosaurus lentus (39253)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (South Dakota) C. sp. (49631) Sauropoda indet. (49633)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Utah) C. sp. (47196 49626 58514 58516 58517 96826 104715)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Montana) C. sp. (50714)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Colorado) Amphicoelias latus (48153 48158) C. grandis (48162) C. sp. (25141 48146 48147 48148 48161 56596 66909 70029 70030 177496 192455) C. sp., C. grandis (11611) C. sp., Morosaurus agilis (28366) C. supremus (11924 48127 48149) Morosaurus laticollis (48128)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (New Mexico) C. sp. (22717 51990 51991)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen) Camarosaurus sp. (182492)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8USA (Wyoming) Camarasauridae indet., Brachiosauridae indet. (22650)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Early/Lower Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Colorado) C. sp. (45975)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Early/Lower Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Utah) C. sp. (192432)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (New Mexico) C. supremus (68099)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Oklahoma) C. sp. (49596 49597)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Colorado) C. sp. (70031 70032) C. sp., C. grandis (55329)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) Camarasauridae indet. (22678)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0Zimbabwe (Mashonaland North) C. sp. (49100 49105)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0USA (Colorado) C. leptodirus, Amphicoelias altus (48129)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0USA (South Dakota) C. sp. (132242 132243) Sauropoda indet. (49630)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0USA (Colorado) C. sp. (53040 71476)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0USA (Utah) Uintasaurus douglassi, C. annae, C. sp. (21852)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) C. sp. (55482 56654)
Aptian - Cenomanian125.0 - 93.9Portugal (Santarem) Morosaurus sp. (49229)