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Reptilia - Thescelosauridae

Thescelosaurus was named by Gilmore (1913). It is the type genus of Thescelosaurinae.

It was assigned to Scelidosaurinae by Huene (1927); to Camptosaurinae by Nopcsa (1928) and Huene (1934); to Camptosauridae by Gilmore (1913) and Huene (1956); to Ornithopoda by Ostrom (1965); to Iguanodontidae by Matthew (1915), Galton (1974), Galton (1974) and Thulborn (1975); to Hypsilophodontia by Sereno (1986) and Norman (1989); to Thescelosauridae by Sternberg (1937), Tatarinov (1964), Rozhdestvensky and Tatarinov (1964), Thulborn (1974) and Eberth (1997); to Euornithopoda by Norman et al. (2004); to Neornithischia by Boyd et al. (2009); to Ornithopoda by Butler et al. (2008) and Han et al. (2012); to Hypsilophodontidae by Gilmore (1915), Lull (1924), Parks (1926), Parks (1926), Russell (1930), Parks (1935), Swinton (1936), Romer (1956), Parsch (1963), Estes (1964), Kuhn (1964), Simmons (1965), Romer (1966), Thulborn (1970), Swinton (1970), Thulborn (1970), Thulborn (1971), Wolberg (1980), McIntosh (1981), Weishampel and Weishampel (1983), Milner and Norman (1984), Norman (1984), Breithaupt (1985), Cooper (1985), Clemens (1986), Carroll (1988), Galton (1989), Sues and Norman (1990), Grigorescu (1992), Weishampel and Heinrich (1992), Galton (1995), Sues (1997), Ryan (1997), Dodson (1997), Winkler et al. (1997), Eberth et al. (2001), Ryan and Evans (2005) and Alifanov and Saveliev (2014); and to Thescelosaurinae by Sternberg (1940), Brown and Druckenmiller (2011), Brown et al. (2013) and Madzia et al. (2018).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1913Thescelosaurus Gilmore p. 1 figs. 1-5
1915Thescelosaurus Gilmore pp. 612-613
1915Thescelosaurus Matthew p. 81
1924Thescelosaurus Lull p. 238
1926Thescelosaurus Parks
1927Thescelosaurus Huene p. 261
1928Thescelesaurus Nopcsa p. 184
1930Thescelosaurus Russell p. 140
1934Thescelosaurus Huene p. 17
1935Thescelosaurus Parks p. 194
1936Thescelosaurus Swinton
1937Thescelosaurus Sternberg p. 375
1940Thescelosaurus Sternberg
1956Thescelosaurus Huene
1956Thescelosaurus Romer p. 628
1963Thescelosaurus Parsch p. 8
1964Thescelosaurus Estes p. 144
1964Thescelosaurus Kuhn p. 6
1964Thescelosaurus Rozhdestvensky and Tatarinov
1964Thescelosaurus Tatarinov p. 570
1965Thescelosaurus Ostrom p. 39
1965Thescelosaurus Simmons p. 68
1966Thescelosaurus Romer p. 370
1970Thescelosaurus Swinton p. 200
1970Thescelosaurus Thulborn p. 244
1971Thescelosaurus Thulborn p. 77
1974Thescelosaurus Galton p. 150
1974Thescelosaurus Thulborn p. 172
1975Thescelosaurus Thulborn p. 99
1980Thescelosaurus Wolberg p. 50
1981Thescelosaurus McIntosh p. 30
1983Thescelosaurus Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1984Thescelosaurus Milner and Norman p. 147
1984Thescelosaurus Norman pp. 342-344 fig. 7
1985Thescelosaurus Breithaupt p. 165
1985Thescelosaurus Cooper p. 313
1986Thescelosaurus Clemens p. 79
1986Thescelosaurus Sereno
1988Thescelosaurus Carroll
1989Thescelosaurus Galton p. 218
1989Thescelosaurus Norman p. 63
1990Thescelosaurus Sues and Norman p. 500
1992Thescelosaurus Grigorescu p. 147
1992Thescelosaurus Weishampel and Heinrich p. 163
1995Bugenasaura Galton pp. 307-309
1995Thescelosaurus Galton pp. 307-308
1995Bugenasaura Galton pp. 308-309 figs. 5A-C, 6
1995Bugenasaura infernalis Galton p. 309 figs. 5A-C, 6
1997Thescelosaurus Dodson p. 12
1997Thescelosaurus Eberth p. 202
1997Thescelosaurus Ryan p. 257
1997Thescelosaurus Sues p. 356
1997Thescelosaurus Winkler et al. p. 345 fig. 19
1999Bugenasaura Galton p. 518
1999Bugenasaura infernalis Galton p. 518
2001Thescelosaurus Eberth et al. p. 66
2004Bugenasaura Norman et al. p. 394
2004Bugenasaura infernalis Norman et al. p. 394
2004Thescelosaurus Norman et al. p. 395
2005Thescelosaurus Ryan and Evans p. 329
2008Bugenasaura infernalis Butler et al. p. 9
2008Bugenasaura Butler et al. p. 21 figs. 2-4
2008Thescelosaurus Butler et al. p. 21 figs. 2-4
2009Thescelosaurus Boyd et al. pp. 761-762
2011Thescelosaurus Brown and Druckenmiller p. 1344
2012Thescelosaurus Han et al. p. 1391 fig. 14
2013Thescelosaurus Brown et al. p. 512
2014Bugenasaura Alifanov and Saveliev p. 419
2014Thescelosaurus Alifanov and Saveliev p. 419
2018Thescelosaurus Madzia et al. p. 973 fig. 4

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

C. A. Boyd et al. 2009Each of the characters proposed below is followed by (character number:state present) from Appendix 1 and illustrated in Figure 4. The following proposed autapomorphies comprise characters optimized as unique to a Thescelosaurus clade relative to all other analyzed taxa: frontals wider at midorbital level than across posterior margin (126:1); dorsolaterally directed process on surangular (129:1); prominent, horizontal ridge on maxilla with at least the posterior portion covered by a series of coarse, rounded, obliquely inclined ridges (131:1); depressed posterior half of ventral edge of jugal covered laterally with obliquely inclined ridges (132:1); foramen in dorsal surface of prefrontal dorsomedial to articulation surface for palpebral that opens into the orbit (133:1). Two additional characters are currently uniquely known for parts of the Thescelosaurus clade, but are unable to be evaluated for its sister taxon Parksosaurus: dorsal edge of opisthotic indented by deep, ‘Y-shaped’ excavation in dorsal view (127:1); palpebral dorsoventrally flattened and rugose along the medial and distal edges (125:1). The latter character is also present in an otherwise distinct basal neornithischian specimen from China housed at IVPP (CAB pers. obs.) whose relationships have not yet been evaluated. Only NCSM 15728 displays all proposed autapomorphies for Thescelosaurus (see Fig. 4 and Table), but subsets are preserved in all other referred specimens.
Two additional characters are optimized as local apomorphies of the Thescelosaurus clade, but occur convergently within major neornithischian subclades: angle between ventral margin of braincase (occipital condyle, basal tubera, and basipterygoid processes) and a line drawn through center of the trigeminal foramen and posterodorsal hypoglossal foramen less than fifteen degrees (128:1); and femur longer than tibia (130:1). The former is found in Iguanodontia and the latter occurs in both Iguanodontia and Marginocephalia.
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yesg
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Maximum body mass: 300 kgg
Minimum body mass: 100 kgg
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: gregariouso
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: herbivoreo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2005-08-25 05:59:26
Modified: 2005-08-25 07:59:26
Source: g = genus, o = order
References: Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Maastrichtian to the top of the Lancian or 72.10000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (48 total)

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Mexico) T. sp. (52052)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) T. neglectus (45261 45262 45264 47816)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) T. neglectus (45240 47794 47795 47809)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Canada (Saskatchewan) T. neglectus (45675)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) T. sp. (45758)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Montana) Dinosauria indet. (54081) T. neglectus (142326) T. sp. (85499)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (South Dakota) T. neglectus (45390 50084) T. sp. (74175)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (North Dakota) T. neglectus (45098 45099 45102 45128 45136 45144) T. sp. (141583)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (North Dakota) T. neglectus (14610)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) T. neglectus (14519 14566) T. sp. (14557)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Colorado) T. sp. (14640)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (South Dakota) T. neglectus (14537 192251)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Montana) T. sp. (14535 14549 14574 14582 14639 14654 179991)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) T. edmontonensis (48627)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Saskatchewan) T. neglectus (48628)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Montana) Dinosauria indet. (54080) T. garbanii, T. neglectus (48622) T. neglectus (14674 48629) T. sp. (189003)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) T. neglectus (14585 48626 50085)