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Protoceratidae (protoceratid)

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Protoceratidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1891Protoceratidae Marsh p. 81
1908Leptotragulinae Matthew p. 561
1934Protoceratidae Cook p. 149
1940Protoceratidae Scott p. 561
1955Leptotragulinae Gazin
1976Leptotragulinae Golz
1981Protoceratidae Thurmond and Jones p. 188
1981Leptotragulinae Webb p. 363
1988Protoceratidae Carroll
2003Protoceratidae Webb et al. p. 349
2006Protoceratidae Hulbert and Whitmore p. 7
2007Protoceratidae Prothero and Ludtke p. 175
2009Protoceratidae Spaulding et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
Ruminantiamorpha
familyProtoceratidae
familyProtoceratidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: browserf
Comments: see also Prothero and Ludtke 2007f
Created: 2005-08-31 14:39:46
Modified: 2009-01-07 18:24:42
Source: f = family, o = order, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Prothero 1998, Nowak 1999, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: base of the Early/Lower Uintan to the top of the Hemphillian or 46.20000 to 4.90000 Ma

Collections (212 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (California) Leptoreodon major (16667 16669 16671 16674 16680 16682 16686 16687 16710 16762) Leptoreodon major, Leptoreodon marshi (16665 16676) Leptoreodon marshi (16666 16706) Leptoreodon pusillus (16694) Leptoreodon sp. (16668) Leptotragulinae indet. (16675 16695)
Late/Upper Uintan46.2 - 40.4Canada (Saskatchewan) Leptoreodon marshi (16626) Leptoreodon sp. (16627)
Late/Upper Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (Montana) Leptoreodon marshi (16551) Leptotragulinae indet. (16584)
Late/Upper Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (California) Leptoreodon leptolophus (16553 16554) Leptoreodon sp. (16585 16780)
Late/Upper Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (Texas) Leptoreodon leptolophus, Leptoreodon pusillus, Toromeryx marginensis (16542)
Uintan46.2 - 40.4Mexico (Oaxaca) Protoceratidae indet. (166797)
Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (Wyoming) Leptoreodon sp., Leptotragulus medius (16513 16517) Leptoreodon sp., Poabromylus golzi (16518) Leptotragulus clarki (16521) Leptotragulus medius (16552)
Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (California) Leptoreodon edwardsi (16786 16787) Leptoreodon leptolophus (16613 16636 16790) Leptoreodon leptolophus, Leptoreodon pusillus (16590) Leptoreodon pusillus, Leptoreodon stocki (16795) Leptoreodon sp. (16547 16615 16785 16814) Leptoreodon stocki (16789 16791 16792 16793) Protoceratidae indet. (16611)
Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (Utah) Leptoreodon marshi, Leptotragulus proavus (16589 16646) Leptotragulus clarki, Leptotragulus medius (16594) Leptotragulus clarki, Leptotragulus medius, Leptotragulus proavus, Leptoreodon sp. (16607) Leptotragulus sp. (16575)
Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (Texas) Leptoreodon edwardsi (16624) Leptoreodon leptolophus (16535) Leptoreodon major (16652) Leptoreodon marshi (16538 16651) Leptoreodon pusillus (16586 16587 16599) Leptoreodon sp., Leptoreodon edwardsi, Leptoreodon major (16614) Toromeryx marginensis (16534)
Uintan - Duchesnean46.2 - 37.2USA (California) Leptoreodon pusillus, Leptoreodon stocki (16801) Leptoreodon stocki (16802) Leptotragulinae indet. (16533)
Uintan - Duchesnean46.2 - 37.2USA (New Mexico) Leptomeryx sp. (16883)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2USA (New Mexico) Poabromylus minor (16873) Protoceratidae indet. (16874)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2USA (Wyoming) Leptotragulus medius, Poabromylus golzi (16826)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2USA (South Dakota) Leptotragulinae indet. (16823)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2Canada (Saskatchewan) Leptoreodon sp. (16846) Leptotragulus sp., Pseudoprotoceras sp. (16845)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2USA (California) Leptoreodon leptolophus, Leptoreodon stocki (16844) Leptoreodon sp. (16810) Leptoreodon stocki (16805 16806 16812)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2USA (Utah) Poabromylus kayi (16861)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2USA (Texas) Heteromeryx dispar (16829) Heteromeryx dispar, Poabromylus minor (16830) Leptoreodon sp. (16856) Poabromylus kayi, Poabromylus minor (16828)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9USA (Georgia) Leptotragulus sp. (181253)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Colorado) Protoceratidae indet. (27244)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (California) Poabromylus robustus (17029)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Nebraska) Heteromeryx dispar, Pseudoprotoceras longinaris (16941) Leptotragulus profectus (17031) Pseudoprotoceras longinaris (16918 16930 16940 17014 17033)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (South Dakota) Heteromeryx dispar (16969 16978) Poabromylus kayi (16885 16938) Poabromylus minor, Leptotragulus profectus (17006)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Montana) Leptotragulus profectus (16935 16959 16988 16989 17010) Trigenicus socialis (17028)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Wyoming) Leptotragulus profectus (16960 16961 16962) Leptotragulus profectus, Pseudoprotoceras longinaris (16963) Leptotragulus sp. (16942 16943) Leptotragulus ultimus (16972) Pseudoprotoceras longinaris (16964) Pseudoprotoceras longinaris, Pseudoprotoceras minor (17045) Pseudoprotoceras taylori (16966)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9Canada (Saskatchewan) Pseudoprotoceras sp., Trigenicus profectus (16979) Trigenicus profectus (16919)
Late/Upper Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Colorado) Protoceratidae indet., Pseudoprotoceras longinaris (85117)
Middle Chadronian37.2 - 33.9Canada (Saskatchewan) Pseudoprotoceras sp., Trigenicus profectus (16928)
Middle Chadronian - Late/Upper Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Colorado) Poabromylus sp., Pseudoprotoceras longinaris (156988)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3Canada (Saskatchewan) Protoceras celer (17111) Protoceras sp. (17055)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8Canada (Saskatchewan) Protoceras sp. (17372)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (South Dakota) Protoceras celer (17316 17344) Protoceras sp. (17359 17380)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (Florida) Protoceratidae indet. (17341)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (North Dakota) Protoceras sp. (17320)
Whitneyan - Monroecreekian33.3 - 24.8Canada (Saskatchewan) Protoceras celer (17306)
Arikareean30.8 - 20.43Panama (Panama) Paratoceras tedfordi (152378)
Arikareean30.8 - 20.43USA (South Dakota) Protoceras skinneri (17520)
Arikareean30.8 - 20.43USA (Nebraska) Protoceras skinneri (17522)
Harrisonian24.8 - 20.43USA (Nebraska) Syndyoceras cooki (17738 17809 17843 17846 28043) Syndyoceras sp. (17819)
Harrisonian24.8 - 20.43USA (Wyoming) Protoceras neatodelpha (17794) Syndyoceras cooki (17788)
Aquitanian23.03 - 20.44USA (Texas) Prosynthetoceras texanus, Protoceras sp. (18663)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Mexico (Chiapas) Paratoceras tedfordi (35575)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Louisiana) Prosynthetoceras francisi (18621) Prosynthetoceras sp. (163859)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Texas) Antilocapridae indet. (18680) Prosynthetoceras francisi (18628 18641 18644 18671 18673 18674 18675) Prosynthetoceras francisi, Prosynthetoceras texanus (18642) Prosynthetoceras sp. (18608 18620 18637) Prosynthetoceras texanus (18615 18636 18651) Prosynthetoceras trinitiensis (18634) Synthetoceras rileyi (18604) Synthetoceras tricornatus (18252)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Mexico (Oaxaca) Paratoceras sp., Synthetoceras sp. (18744)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Florida) Protoceratidae indet. (18503)
Early/Lower Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97Panama (Panama City) Paratoceras wardi (144879)
Early/Lower Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97Panama (Panama) Paratoceras coatesi (191975)
Early/Lower Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97USA (New Jersey) Prosynthetoceras sp. (17910)
Early/Lower Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97Panama Paratoceras coatesi (89444 105889 142889) Paratoceras orarius (96702) Paratoceras sp. (18725)
Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97Canada (Saskatchewan) Protoceratidae indet. (18003)
Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97USA (Nebraska) Lambdoceras sp. (17952) Prosynthetoceras siouxensis (17985 18011 18019)
Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97USA (South Dakota) Lambdoceras hessei (17912)
Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97USA (Texas) Dromomeryx angustidens, Dromomeryx texanus, Merycodus grandis, Prosynthetoceras texanus (18626) Prosynthetoceras texanus (18635 75945) Protoceras sp., Blastomeryx texanus (18617)
Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97USA (Florida) Prosynthetoceras texanus (18561 18586) Syndyoceras australis (18597)
Barstovian15.97 - 13.6USA (California) Prosynthetoceras sp. (19542)
Barstovian15.97 - 13.6USA (Texas) Prosynthetoceras francisi (18619) Prosynthetoceras sp. (18627) Protoceratidae indet. (18646)
Barstovian15.97 - 13.6Mexico (Oaxaca) Protoceratidae indet. (18724)
Barstovian15.97 - 13.6USA (Nebraska) Prosynthetoceras siouxensis (17905) Prosynthetoceras sp. (18192 18275 18284) Protoceratidae indet. (18208)
Early/Lower Barstovian15.97 - 13.6USA (Nebraska) Prosynthetoceras siouxensis (17976)
Early/Lower Barstovian15.97 - 13.6USA (Texas) Paratoceras wardi, Prosynthetoceras trinitiensis (18665)
Serravallian13.82 - 11.62USA (Maryland) Dromomerycinae indet. (18518)
Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Nebraska) Synthetoceras tricornatus (18315)
Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Texas) Paratoceras macadamsi, Synthetoceras tricornatus (18244) Synthetoceras tricornatus (18074 18347 18355 18640) Synthetoceras tricornatus, Blastomeryx elegans (18610)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Alabama) Synthetoceras sp. (18559) Synthetoceras tricornatus (81498)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Florida) Protoceratidae indet. (18560)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (North Carolina) Kyptoceras amatorum (18550)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Florida) Kyptoceras amatorum (18599)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6USA (North Carolina) Kyptoceras amatorum (52582)