Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Relationships
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Canis dirus (dire wolf)

Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1858Canis dirus Leidy
1869Canis indianensis Leidy
1876Canis mississippiensis Allen p. 49
1903Canis indianensis Merriam p. 288 figs. Pl. 30, Fig. 2
1916Canis ayersi Sellards
1918Aenocyon ayersi Merriam
1918Aenocyon dirus Merriam
1929Canis ayersi Simpson
1931Canis dirus Elftman p. 5
1940Canis dirus Olson p. 42
1940Canis ayersi Olson p. 44
1946Canis dirus Stock and et al.
1949Aenocyon dirus Hibbard
1960Aenocyon dirus Hibbard and Taylor
1966Canis dirus Slaughter p. 481
1972Canis dirus Kurten and Anderson
1972Canis dirus Lundelius, Jr.
1974Canis dirus Martin
1979Canis dirus Nowak
1980Canis dirus Kurten and Anderson p. 171
1984Canis dirus Kurten
1988Canis dirus Berta
2009Canis dirus Tedford et al. p. 144 figs. 40, 43, 44, 56A–F; appendices 2, 3

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
RankNameAuthor
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
Laurasiatheria
Scrotifera
Ferae()
CarnivoramorphaWyss and Flynn 1993
CarnivoraformesFlynn et al.
orderCarnivoraBowditch 1821
suborderCaniformiaKretzoi 1943
superfamilyCanoideaSimpson 1931
familyCanidaeFischer 1817
subfamilyCaninaeGill 1872
tribeCaniniFischer de Waldheim 1817
subtribeCanina()
genusCanis
speciesdirus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. H. Tedford et al. 2009Canis dirus is distin- guished by a number of autapomorphies related to hypercarnivory: loss of m2 ante- rolabial cingulum; wide palate; greatly re- duced m1–m2 metaconids and entoconids; greatly reduced M1–M2 hypocones; very weak or discontinuous anterolingual cingu- lum across M1 protocone. It shares with C. armbrusteri two synapomorphies: short and little recurved canine, and a reduced P4 protocone. With C. lupus it shares four additional synapomorphies: paroccipital pro- cess strongly expanded posteriorly; frontal sinus reaching the frontoparietal suture; long incisive foramina that extend to or behind canine alveoli; M1 parastyle very weak, preparacrista directed anteriorly, not to parastyle.