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Chirotheriidae

Reptilia - Chirotheriidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1935Chirotheriidae Abel p. 67
1941Thecodontichnus fucinii Huene p. 5–6
1948Chirotheriidae Peabody p. 340
1952Chirotheriidae Bock p. 410
1957Chirotheriidae Baird p. 473
1958Thecodontichnus fucinii Kuhn p. 23
1959Thecodontichnus fucinii Schmidt p. 105
1963Chirotheriidae Kuhn p. 67
1963Thecodontichnus fucinii Kuhn p. 88
1964Chirotheriidae Kuhn p. 320
1969Chirotheriidae Haubold p. 91
1970Deuterosauropodopus minor Ellenberger p. 346
1980Thecodontichnus fucinii Tongiorgi p. 81
1984Brachychirotherium minor Olsen and Galton p. 96 fig. 3
2007Chirotheridae Calvo p. 318

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
Pseudosuchia(Zittel 1890)
familyChirotheriidaeAbel 1935
familyChirotheriidaeAbel 1935

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
F. E. Peabody 1948Relatively narrow, quadrupedal trackways indicating the normal tetrapod walking gait; in the walking gait a small pentadactyl manus impression regularly occurs immediately in front of, but never overlapped by a much larger, pentadactyl pes which generally resembles a reversed human hand. Manus and pes are digitigrade, and in large forms the pes tends to be plantigrade; digits I-IV point more or less forward, manus digit IV is always shorter than III, digit V is divergent and well developed as a crude prop for the foot; strong elaws are indicated on digits I-IV, infrequently on V of manus and pes, claw on III being largest; the footprints mayor may not show specialized metatarsal and phalangeal pads. Clear impressions often show a granular or beaded skin surface.
Reptiles represented by trackways probably dinosaur-like in form, and in body propor­ tions showed arrested tendency toward bipedalism. In smallest species pes only 3 cm.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Diet: carnivoresubo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:38:45
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:38:45
Source: subo = suborder, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Benton 1983, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: base of the Artinskian to the top of the Turonian or 290.10000 to 89.80000 Ma

Collections (148 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3Poland (Lower Silesia) Saurichnites leisnerianus (187930)
Artinskian - Capitanian290.1 - 259.9Czech Republic (Hradec Kralove) Saurichnites lacertoides, Saurichnites kablikae (180863)
Induan252.17 - 251.2China (Guizhou) Chirotherium sp. (60516)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2United Kingdom (England) Chirotherium barthii, Chirotherium vorbachi, Chirotherium sp. (52505) Chirotherium herculis (164932) Synaptichnium sp., Chirotherium storetonense, Chirotherium minus, Chirotherium vorbachi, Isochirotherium lomasi, Isochirotherium bipedale, Chirotherium sp., Chirotherium minus (164930)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2Spain (Islas Baleares) Chirotherium sp. (95349)
Induan - Olenekian252.17 - 247.2United Kingdom (County Down) Chirotherium sp. (197357)
Early/Lower Triassic - Middle Triassic252.17 - 237.0Germany (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Chirotherium parvum, Brachychirotherium sp., Chirotherium barthi (192151)
Triassic252.17 - 201.3United Kingdom (Cheshire) Isochirotherium herculis (197337)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2USA (Utah) Chirotherium sp. (135440)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2Germany (Hessen) Protochirotherium wolfhagense (196721)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2USA (Arizona) Chirotherium moquiensis (95109) Chirotherium rex, Chirotherium diabloensis, Chirotherium minus, Chirotherium coltoni (95107)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2Poland (Swietoryzskie) Brachychirotherium hauboldi, Brachychirotherium kalkowensis, Brachychirotherium wiorense, Synaptichnium kotanskii, Synaptichnium chirotherioides, Synaptichnium senkowiczowae, Isochirotherium gierlinskii, Isochirotherium santacrucense (118063)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2USA (Wyoming) Chirotherium barthii (135634 135635 135636 135637)
Olenekian251.2 - 247.2Morocco (Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz) Brachychirotherium sp., Chirotherium barthii, Synaptichnium sp., Isochirotherium gierlinskii, Synaptichnium pseudosuchoides (149976)
Olenekian251.2 - 247.2Argentina (La Rioja) Chirotheriidae indet. (74750)
Olenekian - Anisian251.2 - 242.0USA (Arizona) Chirotherium sp. (105106)
Olenekian - Anisian251.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (Staffordshire) Chirotherium sp. (197356)
Olenekian - Anisian251.2 - 242.0Germany (Thuringia) Chirotherium barthi, Chirotherium sickleri (191138) Chirotherium bornemanni (191137) Chirotherium sp. (191139) Chirotherium sp., Chirotherium barthii, Chirotherium barthi, Chirotherium pfeifferi, Chirotherium vorbachi, Chirotherium hildburghausense (182300)
Aegean247.2 - 242.0France (Grand Est) Chirotherium sp. (189021)
Aegean - Bithynian247.2 - 242.0USA (Utah) Chirotherium moquiensis (114090)
Aegean - Bithynian247.2 - 242.0USA (Arizona) Chirotherium barthi, Chirotherium cameronensis (114095) Chirotherium barthii (135413) Chirotherium marshalli (52806) Chirotherium rex, Chirotherium barthi (95093 114094) Chirotherium sp. (34888)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (Staffordshire) Chirotherium sp., Chirotherium barthii, Chirotherium sickleri (197353) Chirotherium sp., Chirotherium storetonense, Synaptichnium pseudosuchoides (197350) Chirotherium vorbachi (197352)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (Wirral) Chirotherium sp. (197349)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (Leicestershire) Chirotherium sp. (197351)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (England) Chirotherium sp., Isochirotherium sp. (80838) Otozoum swinnertoni, Brachychirotherium coburgense (83053)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (Cheshire) Chirotherium sp., Chirotherium barthii (197296) Isochirotherium sp. (197358)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Spain (Castilla-La Mancha) Chirotherium sp. (74513)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Italy (Trentino-Alto Adige) Chirotherium sp., Brachychirotherium sp., Synaptichnium sp., Isochirotherium sp., Parasynaptichnium sp. (194584)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Poland (Swietoryzskie) Chirotheriidae indet., Brachychirotherium sp., Chirotherium barthii, Synaptichnium sp., Isochirotherium soergeli, Isochirotherium herculis (175801)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Netherlands (Gelderland) Rhynchosauroides peabodyi (96875)
Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Italy (Bolzano) Chirotherium sp., Brachychirotherium sp., Isochirotherium sp. (196816)
Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Italy Brachychirotherium parvum, Isochirotherium delicatum, Chirotherium rex (154341)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0France (Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Brachychirotherium sp. (24834) Chirotherium sp. (68226)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0United Kingdom (Leicestershire) Isochirotherium herculis (197347)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0France (Saône-et-Loire) Brachychirotherium pachydactylum (62182 68223) Brachychirotherium pachydactylum, Brachychirotherium circaparvum (62183) Brachychirotherium pachydactylum, Synaptichnium argantobrivense, Isochirotherium delicatum, Isochirotherium sp., Chirotherium barthi, Synaptichnium cameronensis, Brachychirotherium circaparvum (28462) Brachychirotherium sp. (36226 68222)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0Germany (Thuringia) Chirotherium barthi (191135 191136) Chirotherium pfeifferi (191134)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Chirotherium parvum, Brachychirotherium ciraparvum, Chirotherium barthi, Synaptichnium priscum, Chirotherium coureli, Brachychirotherium sp. (31310)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0China (Guizhou) Chirotherium barthii (196817 196818)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0France (Saône-et-Loire) Brachychirotherium sp. (68906) Brachychirotherium sp., Brachychirotherium pachydactylum, Isochirotherium sp., Brachychirotherium lorteti, Chirotherium sp. (28092)
Ladinian242.0 - 237.0United Kingdom (Scotland) Isochirotherium herculis (181936 181937 181938 181939 181940 181941 181942 181943 181944 181945 181946 181947)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Canada (Nova Scotia) Brachychirotherium parvum (55416)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Germany (Bayern) Chirotherium sp. (97735) Chirotherium wondrai (55417) Dinosaurichnium postchirotherioides (139731)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Poland (Slaskie) Chirotheriidae indet., Brachychirotherium sp. (110468)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Morocco (Argana Basin) Brachychirotherium sp. (195710)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Italy (Toscana) Thecodontichnus fucinii, Chirotherium angustum (68779)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (North Carolina) Brachychirotherium sp. (55526)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Chirotherium sp. (187948)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Italy (Liguria) Chirotheriidae indet. (68780)
Carnian - Norian237.0 - 208.5Lesotho (Maseru) Sauropodopus antiquus (149751)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3USA (Virginia) Chirotherium sp. (192421)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3United Kingdom (England) Chirotherium sp. (174686)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3Argentina (Mendoza) Chirotherium sp., Chirotherium higuerensis (85558)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3USA (Utah) Brachychirotherium sp. (32300 184625)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3United Kingdom (Scotland) Chirotherium sp. (174684)
Tuvalian232.0 - 221.5United Kingdom (Warwickshire) Chirotherium sp. (197334)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (New Jersey) Brachychirotherium parvum, Brachychirotherium eyermani (55412) Chirotherium eyermani, Chirotherium copei, Anomoepus major (46622) Chirotherium lulli (55492 62841) Chirotherium sp. (55418)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (Colorado) Brachychirotherium sp. (84185 192751) Brachychirotherium sp., Cheirotherium sp. (55259)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (New York) Brachychirotherium sp., Chirotherium lulli, Brachychirotherium eyermani (57917)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (Virginia) Brachychirotherium parvum, Chirotherium lulli (154230)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (New Mexico) Brachychirotherium eyermani (52168) Brachychirotherium sp. (46560 83328 83959) Chirotherium sp., Brachychirotherium sp. (84021)
Norian228.0 - 208.5Germany Brachychirotherium hassfurtense (170320)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (Pennsylvania) Brachychirotherium eyermani (55414 55415) Brachychirotherium sp. (54144 84111 84114) Brachychirotherium sp., Chirotherium lulli (84116)
Norian228.0 - 208.5Germany (Thuringia) Chirotherium thuringiacum (186885 186886)
Norian228.0 - 208.5Argentina (La Rioja) Chirotherium sp. (85569) Chirotheroidea indet. (48723)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (Oklahoma) Brachychirotherium sp. (192752)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (Arizona) Brachychirotherium sp. (84187)
Norian228.0 - 208.5Germany (Bayern) Otozoum sp. (139482)
Norian - Rhaetian228.0 - 201.3Lesotho (Mohale's Hoek) Deuterosauropodopus major (56020)
Norian - Rhaetian228.0 - 201.3USA (Utah) Brachychirotherium sp. (57012 83555 193017 193018 193020 193244)
Lacian - Alaunian221.5 - 212.0USA (Virginia) Brachychirotherium parvum (68889)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3USA (Utah) Brachychirotherium sp. (192896 192897 192915 192916 192941)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3USA (Pennsylvania) Brachychirotherium sp. (62767 132244) Brachychirotherium sp., Chirotherium lulli (62766)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3USA (Colorado) Brachychirotherium sp. (192942 193012)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8Lesotho (Quthing) Pseudotetrasauropus dulcis (56003) Synaptichnium motutongense (84072)
Sinemurian199.3 - 190.8Lesotho Chirotherium sp., Dinosauria indet. (56014)
Turonian93.9 - 89.8Egypt (Aswan) Chirotherium sp. (138680)