|Basic info||Taxonomic history||Classification||Relationships|
|Morphology||Ecology and taphonomy||Age range and collections|
It was reranked as the subkingdom Animalia by Blackwell (2004); it was reranked as the kingdom Animalia by Ruggiero et al. (2015).
It was assigned to Eucarya by Woese et al. (1990); to Eukaryota by Blackwell (2004); to Metazoa by Adl et al. (2005); and to Opisthokonta by Ruggiero et al. (2015).
|Year||Name and author|
|1758||Animalia Linnaeus p. 6|
|1874||Metazoa Haeckel p. 572|
|1910||Eumetazoa Butchili p. 32|
|1989||Metazoa Shoshani et al. p. 435|
|1990||Animalia Woese et al. p. 4578|
|1998||Metazoa Zrzavy et al.|
|2002||Metazoa Sepkoski, Jr.|
|2002||Muricassis Sepkoski, Jr.|
|2002||Sentularia Sepkoski, Jr.|
|2002||Subtilicyathus Sepkoski, Jr.|
|2004||Animalia Blackwell p. 274|
|2005||Animalia Adl et al. p. 401 figs. Table 1|
|2005||Metazoa Adl et al. p. 401 figs. Table 1|
|2005||Eumetazoa Peterson et al. p. 38|
|2012||Eumetazoa Nielsen p. 33 figs. Fig. 4.2|
|2015||Animalia Ruggiero et al. p. 17|
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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
|S. M. Adl et al. 2005||Reproduction through an egg cell, usually fertilized by a monociliated sperm cell with acrosome; embryonic development with blastula and gastrulation, with dif- ferentiation into endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm, and neuroderm; tissues organized into organs that share tasks for the individual, unless secondarily lost; some sec- ondarily reduced to small number of cells (e.g. Myxozoa Grasse ́, 1970); coordina- tion of cells and tissues by membrane receptors that respond to ligands through elaborate signal transduction; characteristic cell–cell junctions with belt desmo- somes (zonulae adherentes); basal lamina and extracellular matrix with collagen and other fibrous proteins (laminin, nidogen, and perlecan); heterotrophic nutrition with secretion of digestive enzymes and osmotrophy through a digestive tract; without cell wall; ectoderm completely surrounding body, and endoderm surround- ing a digestive tract; sensory cells in epithelium; nervous tissue in organized network; epithelial contractile cells between endoderm–ectoderm use actin-myosin. Subdivisions not shown.|