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Gymnolaemata

Gymnolaemata -

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1856Gymnolaemata Allman
1987Gymnolaemata Boardman and Cheetham p. 507
1994Gymnolaemata Gordon et al.
1997Gymnolaemata Lee et al.
1998Gymnolaemata Zrzavy et al.
2002Gymnolaemata Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Gymnolaemata Schmidt
2007Gymnolaemata Guha and Gipikrishna p. 804
2007Gymnolaemata Guha and Gopikrishna p. 122

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
RankNameAuthor
Polyzoa
phylumBryozoaEhrenberg 1831
classGymnolaemataAllman 1856
classGymnolaemataAllman 1856

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: low Mg calcitec
Composition 2: aragonitec
Locomotion: stationaryp
Attached: yesp
Life habit: epifaunalp
Diet: suspension feederp
Vision: blindc
Created: 2007-09-18 02:38:08
Modified: 2010-02-11 02:11:32
Source: c = class, p = phylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Smith et al. 2006

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Tremadoc to the top of the Holocene or 485.40000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 477.7 Ma

Collections (799 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Tremadoc485.4 - 477.7USA (Vermont) Heteronema sp. (277)
Oretanian466.0 - 460.9Spain (Toledo) Condranema sp. (20898)
Edenian460.9 - 449.5USA (Pennsylvania) Vinella sp. (34895)
Edenian460.9 - 449.5USA (Ohio) Arthropoma sp. (383 384 385 386)
Turinian460.9 - 449.5USA (Tennessee) Calloporina parva (5347)
Late/Upper Ordovician458.4 - 443.4USA (Ohio) Arthropoma sp. (397)
Johvi457.5 - 449.5Estonia (Ida-Viru) Vinella repens (167473)
Rakvere455.8 - 452.0Estonia (Lääne-Virumaa) Vinella repens (155682)
Maysvillian452.0 - 449.5USA (Ohio) Arthropoma sp. (387 388 391)
Maysvillian - Ashgill452.0 - 443.7USA (Ohio) Arthropoma sp. (389) Vinella sp., Arthropoma sp., Heteronema sp. (390)
Richmond449.5 - 445.6USA (Ohio) Arthropoma sp. (367)
Richmond - Ashgill449.5 - 443.7USA (Ohio) Ropalonaria sp. (392)
Richmondian449.5 - 443.7USA (Indiana) Ropalonaria sp. (72428)
Richmondian449.5 - 443.7USA (Ohio) Arthropoma sp. (372) Ropalonaria sp. (368 72804 72870 72873 72874 73038 73121)
Richmondian - Ashgill449.5 - 443.7USA (Ohio) Ropalonaria sp. (393)
Llandovery443.4 - 433.4Canada (Manitoba) Argopora manitobensis (2970 2973 2974 2987 3020 3027 3028 3029 3033)
Llandovery443.4 - 433.4USA (New York) Ropalonaria sp. (462)
Wenlock433.4 - 427.4USA (New York) Ropalonaria sp. (541)
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0United Kingdom (Wales) Ropalonaria sp. (74805)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Australia (Victoria) Bascomella panis (75698)