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Protocetidae

Mammalia - Ungulata - Protocetidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1908Protocetidae Stromer p. 148
1914Protocetidae Abel p. 220
1923Protocetidae Miller p. 40
1928Protocetidae Kellogg p. 32 figs. Table 1
1936Protocetidae Kellogg p. 231
1936Protocetidae Slijper p. 540
1945Protocetidae Simpson p. 100
1985Protocetidae Barnes et al. p. 25
1985Protocetidae Kumar and Sahni p. 166
1988Protocetidae Carroll
1993Protocetidae Benton p. 761
1994Protocetidae Fordyce and Barnes p. 428
1995Protocetidae Fordyce et al. p. 379
1997Protocetidae McKenna and Bell p. 369
1998Protocetidae Rice
2001Protocetidae Fordyce and de Muizon p. 176
2001Protocetidae Thewissen et al. p. 351 figs. Table 1
2001Protocetidae Uhen p. 135
2002Protocetidae Rice p. 231 figs. Table 1
2003Protocetidae Fordyce p. 156 figs. Figure 9.1
2003Protocetidae Geisler and Sanders p. 27
2004Protocetidae van Vliet p. 143
2005Protocetidae Gingerich p. 237 figs. Table 15.1
2007Protocetidae Bianucci and Landini p. 45 figs. Table 2.1
2008Protocetidae McLeod and Barnes p. 74
2008Protocetidae Uhen p. 559
2008Protocetidae Uhen and Berndt p. 57
2009Protocetidae Gingerich et al. p. 3
2009Protocetidae Rice p. 235 figs. Table 1
2010Protocetidae Fitzgerald p. 370 figs. Table 1
2010Protocetidae Uhen p. 203 figs. Figure 1
2011Protocetidae Bianucci and Gingerich p. 1175
2011Protocetidae Uhen et al. p. 957
2012Protocetidae Gingerich p. 313 figs. Figure 4
2013Protocetidae Godfrey et al. p. 257
2014Protocetidae Bajpai and Thewissen p. 2
2014Protocetidae Gingerich and Cappetta p. 111
2014Protocetidae Hautier et al. p. e2
2014Protocetidae Uhen p. 1030
2015Protocetidae Gao and Ni p. 156 figs. Table 1
2015Protocetidae Gingerich and Zouhri p. 276
2016Protocetidae Marx et al. p. 98
2017Protocetidae Berta p. 159
2019Protocetidae Gibson et al.
2019Protocetidae Lambert et al. p. 1

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)
orderArtiodactyla()
Cetacea()
familyProtocetidae
familyProtocetidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. D. Uhen 2001Thewissen and others (1996) characterized members of the family Protocetidae as having a supraorbital shield, greatly enlarged mandibular foramina, a reduced nasopharyngeal duct (compared to Ambulocetus), and reduced hind limbs. All non-basilosaurid archaeocetes, including protocetids, are characterized by the retention of M3, lack of well-developed accessory denticles on the cheek teeth, and presence of innominata that lack a greatly elongated pubis, and possess a craniodorsally oriented ilium (rather than caudodorsally oriented as in Basilosauridae). The family Protocetidae is most likely paraphyletic, giving rise to the Basilosauridae (Thewissen and others, 1996; see below).
M. D. Uhen 2008Thewissen et al. (1996) characterized members of the family Protocetidae as having a supraorbital shield, greatly enlarged mandibular foramina, a reduced nasopharyngeal duct (compared to Ambulocetus), and reduced hind limbs. All non-basilosaurid archaeocetes, including protocetids, are characterized as retaining M3, lacking well-developed accessory denticles on the cheek teeth, and having normally oriented innominata that lack a greatly elongated pubis (Uhen, 1998b). The family Protocetidae is most likely paraphyletic, giving rise to the Basilosauridae (Thewissen et al., 1996). This taxonomy does not follow the subfamilial taxonomy erected by Gingerich et al. (2005), which may be valid, but was unsupported by phylogenetic analysis.
M. D. Uhen 2014Members of the Family Protocetidae have a well-developed supraorbital shield; greatly enlarged mandibular foramina; a reduced nasopharyngeal duct (compared to Ambulocetus); M3 present; well-developed accessory denticles on the cheek teeth absent; innominata oriented in a standard mammalian anatomical position with a well-developed ischium and ilium; greatly elongate pubis absent; 13 thoracic verte- brae, 6 lumbar vertebrae, and 4 sacral vertebrae (Thewissen et al. 1996, Uhen 1998b, Gingerich 2010, Uhen et al. 2011).