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Sirenia (sirenian)

Mammalia -

Taxonomy
Sirenia was named by Illiger (1811). It is extant.

It was reranked as the order Sirenia by Brandt (1849), Gill (1872), Leidy (1873), Cope (1889), Flower and Lydekker (1891), Parker and Haswell (1897), Gadow (1898), Trouessart (1898), Hay (1902), Case (1904), Andrews (1906), Abel (1919), Hay (1930), McKenna (1975), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Takahashi et al. (1986), Domning (1988), Domning (1991), Domning (1996), Domning (1997), Madsen et al. (2001), Sepkoski (2002), Seiffert (2007), Asher and Helgen (2010), Bajpai et al. (2010), Voss et al. (2016), Domning et al. (2017), Voss et al. (2017), Voss and Hampe (2017) and Díaz-Berenguer et al. (2018); it was reranked as the suborder Sirenia by Gray (1850), Gray (1863), Gray (1864), Gray (1866) and Zittel (1925); it was reranked as the infraorder Sirenia by Canto et al. (2010); it was reranked as the unranked clade Sirenia by Fischer (1829) and Velez-Juarbe and Wood (2019).

It was assigned to Natantia by Illiger (1811); to Cete by Fischer (1829); to Cetacea by Brandt (1849); to Pinnata by Bonaparte (1850); to Cete by Gray (1850); to Cetacea by Gray (1863), Gray (1864) and Gray (1866); to Educabilia by Gill (1872); to Mutilata by Cope (1889); to Halobioidea by Ameghino (1889); to Eutheria by Flower and Lydekker (1891); to Eutheria by Parker and Haswell (1897); to Monodelphia by Hay (1902); to Subungulata by Zittel (1925); to Ungulata by Hay (1930); to Eutheria by Flower (1883), Gadow (1898), Carroll (1988) and Nowak (1991); to Paenungulata by Waddell et al. (1999); to Afrotheria by Madsen et al. (2001); to Mammalia by Leidy (1873), Trouessart (1898), Case (1904), Andrews (1906), Abel (1919), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Takahashi et al. (1986), Domning (1988), Domning (1991), Domning (1997) and Sepkoski (2002); to Tethytheria by McKenna (1975), Domning (1996), Waddell et al. (2001), Gheerbrandt et al. (2005), Seiffert (2007), Canto et al. (2010), Asher and Helgen (2010), Bajpai et al. (2010), Voss et al. (2016), Domning et al. (2017), Voss et al. (2017), Voss and Hampe (2017) and Díaz-Berenguer et al. (2018); and to Pansirenia by Velez-Juarbe and Wood (2019).

Sister taxa
Dugongidae (syn. Halicoroidea, Halicorida, Halicoridae), Prorastomidae (syn. Prorastomatidae), Protosirenidae, Rhytinidae, Trichechidae (syn. Trichechoidea, Manatoidea, Halicorea, Manatidae, Halicoreae, Manatida)

View classification of included taxa

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1811Sirenia Illiger p. 140
1821Herbivorae Gray p. 309
1827Manatides Billberg p. 32
1829Sirenia Fischer p. 501
1837Manatina Bonaparte
1838Pugmeodon Kaup p. 319
1849Sirenia Brandt p. 1
1850Manatina Bonaparte p. 1
1850Sirenia Bonaparte p. 1
1850Sirenia Gray p. 138
1853Herbivora Bronn p. 777
1863Sirenia Gray p. 198
1864Sirenia Gray p. 247
1866Sirenia Gray p. 62
1871Crassitherium robustum Van Beneden
1871Crassitherium Van Beneden p. 171
1871Crassitherium robustum Van Beneden p. 171
1872Sirenia Gill p. v
1872Crassitherium Gill p. 92
1872Pugmeodon Gill p. 92
1873Manatus inornatus Leidy p. 336
1873Sirenia Leidy p. 336
1883Sirenia Flower p. 184
1885Crassitherium robustum Woodward p. 424
1885Manatus inornatus Woodward p. 424
1886Manatherium Hartlaub p. 378
1889Halobioidea Ameghino p. 652
1889Sirenia Ameghino p. 652
1889Sirenia Cope p. 874
1891Sirenia Flower and Lydekker p. 89
1892Manatus inornatus Lydekker p. 336
1897Sirenia Parker and Haswell p. 451
1898Sirenia Gadow p. 44
1898Manatherium Trouessart p. 999
1898Sirenia Trouessart p. 999
1898Manatus inornatus Trouessart p. 1000
1898Crassitherium Trouessart p. 1004
1898Crassitherium robustum Trouessart p. 1004
1902Sirenia Hay p. 582
1902Trichechus inornatus Hay p. 583
1904Sirenia Case p. 55
1904Manatherium Palmer p. 398
1904Pugmeodon Palmer p. 598
1904Manatherium Trouessart p. 748
1904Trichechus inornatus Trouessart p. 749
1904Crassitherium Trouessart p. 750
1904Crassitherium robustum Trouessart p. 750
1906Sirenia Andrews p. 197
1919Sirenia Abel p. 832
1919Manatherium Abel p. 835
1923Trichechiformes Hay p. 109
1925Sirenia Zittel p. 246
1925Manatherium Zittel p. 264
1930Sirenia Hay p. 653
1930Trichechiformes Hay p. 655
1930Halitherium inornatum Hay p. 657
1932Trichechiformes Simpson p. 423
1932Manatherium Simpson p. 424
1941Manatherium Kretzoi p. 154
1941Crassitherium Kretzoi p. 155
1941Trichechiformes Kretzoi p. 385
1953Trichechiformes Pascual p. 167
1956Trichechiformes Paula Couto p. 106
1967Trichechiformes Paula Couto p. 346
1967Sirenotherium Paula Couto p. 347
1967Sirenotherium pirabensis Paula Couto p. 347 figs. Fig. 1-3
1975Sirenia McKenna p. 43
1981Sirenia Thurmond and Jones p. 182
1982Sirenotherium Domning p. 600
1982Sirenotherium pirabensis Domning p. 600
1986Sirenia Takahashi et al. p. 300
1988Sirenia Carroll
1988Sirenia Domning p. 399
1989Trichechiformes Pilleri et al. p. 17
1989Sirenotherium Toledo p. 5
1991Sirenia Domning p. 398
1991Sirenia Nowak
1991Trichechiformes Vidal p. 6
1996Sirenia Domning p. 378
1997Sirenia Domning p. 398
1999Sirenia Waddell et al. p. cover
2001Sirenia Madsen et al. p. 610
2001Trichechiformes Sach and Heizmann p. 42
2001Sirenia Waddell et al. p. 148
2002Sirenia Sepkoski, Jr.
2005Sirenia Gheerbrandt et al. p. 297
2007Sirenia Seiffert
2010Sirenia Asher and Helgen p. 3 figs. Figure 15
2010Sirenia Bajpai et al. p. 42
2010Halobioidea Bouchet et al.
2010Sirenia Canto et al. p. 20
2016Sirenia Voss et al. p. 6
2017Sirenia Domning et al. pp. e1299158-2
2017Sirenia Voss and Hampe p. 340
2017Sirenia Voss et al. p. 165
2018Sirenia Díaz-Berenguer et al. p. 3
2019Sirenia Velez-Juarbe and Wood

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
Pansirenia
Sirenia()
Sirenia()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinef
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: aquaticf
Diet: herbivoref
Reproduction: viviparousf
Created: 2005-09-11 17:02:09
Modified: 2017-04-17 10:41:33
Source: f = family, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Domning 1978, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Middle Eocene to the top of the Holocene or 48.60000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 47.8 Ma

Collections (729 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Paleogene66.0 - 23.03Libya Halitherium sp. (76981)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Jamaica Prorastomus sirenoides (49874)
Ypresian - Lutetian56.0 - 41.3Tunisia Sirenia indet. (87795)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Hungary Eotheroides sp. (49888) Sirenavus sp. (49958) Sirenia indet. (49952 49953 49954 49956 49957 49959) Sirenia indet., Sirenavus sp. (49960)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Madagascar Eotheroides lambondrano (93587)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Hungary Sirenia indet. (49886)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Yemen Sirenia indet. (47928)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2USA (North Carolina) Sirenia indet. (32898)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Italy (Verona) Halitherium veronense, Paraliosiren suessi, Halitherium angustifrons, Halitherium curvidens (48159)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2India Sirenia indet. (48638)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2USA (Florida) Protosiren sp. (49883) Protosiren sp., Prorastomidae indet. (49884) Sirenia indet. (49881)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Somalia Prototherium sp. (49940) Sirenia indet. (49939 51582)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Jamaica Prorastomus sirenoides (144125) Sirenia indet. (5241)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3India (Kutch) Eosiren sp., Eotheroides babiae, Eotheroides waghapadarensis, Protosiren fraasi (45590)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Hungary Protosiren fraasi, Sirenavus hungaricus, Protosiren fraasi (49887) Sirenia indet., Anisosiren pannonica (48072)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3India (Gujarat) Sirenia indet. (48074 88643 88644)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Spain (Boltana) Dugongidae indet. (189780)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Spain (Huesca) Sirenia indet. (162506)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Libya Sirenia indet. (49943)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Togo Dugongidae indet., Sirenia indet. (32991)