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Archosauria (archosaur)

Reptilia -

Archosauria was named by Cope (1869) ["great order"]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Thies et al. (1997) and Nesbitt (2011) and Ezcurra (2016).

It was synonymized subjectively with Hyperosauria by Jaekel (1911); it was reranked as the subclass Archosauria by Haughton and Brink (1954), Parsch (1963), Bakker and Galton (1974), Thulborn (1975), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Thies et al. (1997); it was reranked as the superorder Archosauria by Kuhn (1966); it was reranked as the infraclass Archosauria by Olson (1966) and Olshevsky (1992); it was reranked as the class Archosauria by Bakker (1986); it was reranked as the unranked clade Archosauria by Gardiner (1982), Gauthier et al. (1989), Parrish (1993), Long and Murry (1995), Senter (2004), Nesbitt (2011), Nesbitt et al. (2014) and Ezcurra (2016).

It was assigned to Diapsida by Olson (1947) and Kuhn (1966); to Amniota by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Thecodontia by Gardiner (1982); to Diapsida by Bakker (1986); to Diapsida by Roxo (1937), Olson (1966) and Olshevsky (1992); to Reptilia by Cope (1870), Lydekker (1888), Haughton and Brink (1954), Parsch (1963), Thulborn (1975), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Thies et al. (1997); to Archosauromorpha by Benton (1985), Carroll (1988), Benton (1990) and Peng et al. (2001); to Crurotarsi by Nesbitt (2011); to Archosauriformes by Gauthier et al. (1989), Sereno (1991), Parrish (1993), Long and Murry (1995), Senter (2004) and Nesbitt et al. (2014); and to Eucrocopoda by Ezcurra (2016).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1869Archosauria Cope p. 30
1870Archosauria Cope p. 28
1888Archosauria Lydekker p. 1
1898Picrodon Seeley
1898Picrodon herveyi Seeley
1926Megalosaurus terquemi Huene p. 80
1932Avipes Huene p. 47
1932Avipes dillstedtianus Huene p. 47 figs. Pl. 1, fig. 7
1937Archosauria Roxo p. 44
1938Avipes dillstedtianus Schmidt p. 73
1947Archosauria Olson pp. 44, 45
1952Avipes dillstedtianus Lang and Huene p. 34
1954Archosauria Haughton and Brink p. 4
1956Avipes Romer p. 611
1959Palaeosauriscus Kuhn p. 425
1963Archosauria Parsch p. 4
1964Palaeosauriscus Kuhn p. 325
1964Avipes Tatarinov p. 530
1964Palaeosauriscus Tatarinov p. 535
1965Strigosuchus Simmons p. 31
1965Strigosuchus licinus Simmons p. 31 fig. 8
1966Archosauria Kuhn p. 69
1966Archosauria Olson p. 301
1966Avipes Romer p. 369
1966Palaeosauriscus Romer p. 370
1967Gresslyosaurus terquemi Lapparent p. 10
1970Palaeosauriscus Colbert p. 26
1970Palaeosauriscus Ellenberger p. 348
1970Avipes Steel p. 10
1970Avipes dillstedtianus Steel p. 10
1970Palaeosauriscus Steel p. 25
1970Picrodon Steel p. 26
1970Picrodon herveyi Steel p. 26
1970Megalosaurus terquemi Steel p. 35
1971Avipes Kuhn p. 16
1971Avipes dillstedtianus Kuhn p. 16
1971Palaeosauricus Kuhn p. 16
1974Archosauria Bakker and Galton p. 171
1975Archosauria Thulborn p. 267
1978Avipes Anderson and Cruickshank p. 31
1981Archosauria Thurmond and Jones p. 142
1982Archosauria Gardiner p. 229
1984Avipes Welles p. 156
1985Archosauria Benton p. 154
1986Archosauria Bakker p. 472
1986Avipes Battail p. 47
1986Picrodon Battail p. 48
1987Agrestipus Weems p. 13 figs. 4, Pl. 1F, 2B, E
1987Agrestipus hottoni Weems p. 13 figs. 4, Pl. 1F, 2B, E
1988Archosauria Carroll
1988Avipes Carroll
1988Strigosuchus Carroll
1989Archosauria Gauthier et al. p. 345
1990Archosauria Benton p. 15
1991Archosauria Sereno p. 39 fig. 26
1992Archosauria Olshevsky
1993Archosauria Parrish p. 290 fig. 1
1995Archosauria Long and Murry
1995Parrishia Long and Murry p. 164
1995Parrishia mccreai Long and Murry p. 167 figs. 174-175
1997Archosauria Thies et al.
1999Avesuchia Benton
2001Archosauria Peng et al. p. 32
2004Archosauria Senter p. 260
2006Agrestipus Weishampel pp. 133-134
2006Agrestipus hottoni Weishampel pp. 133-134
2007Gresslyosaurus terquemi Gand et al. p. 74
2011Archosauria Nesbitt p. 193 fig. 51
2014Archosauria Nesbitt et al.
2016Archosauria Ezcurra

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

E. D. Cope 1870Elements of the limbs, of the pes and manus differentiated, in definiitenumber. "Postorbitals and supratemporals " of Owen wanting. Quadratum immoveably united by suture with opisthotic, prootic and quadratojugal. Sacrum of from one to six vertebrae.
Neural arches attached by suture in most. Premaxillary divided. Cranial walls cartilaginous anteriorly. Palatine bones in contact with maxilliaries, and united by suture with them.
Circulatory System (known only in the Crocodilia). Heart with complete septum of the ventricles; a communication between aorta roots.
Nervous System (known only in the Crocodilia). Cerebellum with small lateral lobes and weak plicae.
S. J. Nesbitt 2011The least inclusive clade containing Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, and Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 (sensu Sereno, 2005).
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 100000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 300 gg
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Source: g = genus, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Peczkis 1995, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Pennsylvanian to the top of the Holocene or 323.20000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 298.9 Ma

Collections (14430 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Pennsylvanian323.2 - 298.9USA (Pennsylvania) Thenaropus heterodactylus (200134)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3Poland (Lower Silesia) Saurichnites leisnerianus (187930)
Artinskian - Capitanian290.1 - 259.9Czech Republic (Hradec Kralove) Saurichnites lacertoides, Saurichnites kablikae (180863)
Buntsandstein265.0 - 252.3Germany (Bavaria) Chirotherium vorbachi (205801) Saurichnites auraensis (205802) Saurichnites auraensis, Chirotherium vorbachi (205800)
Lopingian259.9 - 252.17Italy (Trentino-Alto Adige) Thecodontichnus sp., Prochirotherium sp., Prochirotherium permicum (188750)
Induan252.17 - 251.2China (Guizhou) Chirotherium sp. (60516)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2Niger (Agadez) Chirotherium sp. (200662)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2Morocco (Marakech-Tensift-El Haouz) Synaptichnium sp., Protochirotherium sp. (199897 199898 199899 199900)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2United Kingdom (England) Chirotherium herculis (164932) Coelurosaurichnus sp. A, Coelurosaurichnus sp. B, Coelurosaurichnus ziegelangernensis, Aetosauripus sp. (184045) Synaptichnium sp., Chirotherium storetonense, Chirotherium minus, Chirotherium vorbachi, Isochirotherium lomasi, Rhynchosauroides tumidus, Isochirotherium bipedale, Chirotherium sp., Chirotherium minus (164930)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2South Africa (Free State) Tikoepentapodiscus fabri (84059)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2Spain (Islas Baleares) Chirotherium sp. (95349)
Induan - Olenekian252.17 - 247.2Russian Federation (Orenburg) Proterosuchia indet. (37040)
Induan - Olenekian252.17 - 247.2United Kingdom (County Down) Chirotherium sp. (197357)
Induan - Smithian252.17 - 247.2India (West Bengal) Teratosaurus bengalensis (117188)
Triassic252.17 - 201.3United Kingdom (Cheshire) Isochirotherium herculis (197337)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2Poland (Swietoryzskie) Prorotodactylus sp. (175800)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2USA (Utah) Chirotherium sp. (135440) Grallator sp., Eubrontes sp. (105542)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2Russian Federation (Orenburg) Archosauria indet. (195830)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2Germany (Hessen) Protochirotherium wolfhagense (196721)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt) Mesorhinus fraasi (97732)