Pisocrinus-Gissocrinus Assoc., SE Wisconsin, NE Illinois, and N Indiana (Silurian to of the United States)

Where: Illinois (43.0° N, 88.0° W: paleocoordinates 24.3° S, 50.1° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• basin-level geographic resolution

When: Wenlock to Wenlock (433.4 - 423.0 Ma)

• Portions of Joliet Fm., Sugar Run Fm., lower-middle Racine Fm., and Wabash Fm.

Environment/lithology: deep subtidal; dolomitic, shelly/skeletal, argillaceous wackestone and dolomitic, shelly/skeletal, argillaceous lime mudstone

• "skeletal grains non-abraded bu disarticulated; skeletal grons from <1-20% of total seidment volume...winnowed debris patches occur, but are rare and small; rare storm rup-up conglomerates; [generally] no evidence of vigorous bottom currents, and aposition well below fairweather wavebase, probably at or below normal storm wavebase, in generall quiet water settings is indicated...significant ichofauna..carbonaceous material...pyrite...The P.-G. Assoc. occupies a quiet water, intermound position within the Racine and Wabash Formations, indicating a depth below BA 3 mounds; a BA 4 psotion is preferred. The abundance of clorindids (Antichynchonella) and Dicoelosia plus some Skenidioides further suggests that the assoc. may range into BA 5."
• "occurs in skeletal-moldic dolomudstones to dolowackestones, slightly argillaceous to argillaceous"

Collection methods: I have included taxa from table 45.45 as well as others mentioned in text.

Primary reference: T. J. Frest, C. E. Brett, and B. J. Witzke. 1999. Caradocian-Gedinnian echinoderm associations of Central and Eastern North America. Paleocommunities--a case study from the Silurian and Lower Devonian 638-783 [M. Foote/K. Koverman/P. Wagner]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 26816: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 04.11.2002

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Phacopida - Dalmanitidae
Dalmanites sp. Barrande 1852 trilobite
 Phacopida - Encrinuridae
Encrinuridae indet. Angelin 1854 trilobite
 Phacopida - Cheiruridae
Cheiruridae indet. Hawle and Corda 1847 trilobite
 Phacopida - Calymenidae
"Sthenarocalymene celebra" = Calymene celebra
"Sthenarocalymene celebra" = Calymene celebra Raymond 1916 trilobite
Lecathylus sp. Weller 1925
The genus is variably spelled "Lecthyalus" and "Lecthaylus" in this reference, but the correct form is "Lecathylus" according to Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, volume W.
 Strophomenida - Sowerbyellidae
Eoplectodonta sp. Kozlowski 1929
 Strophomenida - Leptestiidae
Leangella sp. Opik 1933
 Strophomenida - Rafinesquinidae
Leptaena sp. Dalman 1828
 Strophomenida - Strophodontidae
"Protomegastrophia profunda" = Brachyprion (Protomegastrophia) profunda
"Protomegastrophia profunda" = Brachyprion (Protomegastrophia) profunda Hall 1852
 Dictyonellida - Eichwaldiidae
"Dictyonella sp." = Eodictyonella
"Dictyonella sp." = Eodictyonella Wright 1994
 Athyridida - Meristellidae
Meristina sp. Hall 1867
 Spiriferida - Cyrtiidae
Cyrtia sp. Dalman 1828
Striispirifer sp. Cooper and Muir-Wood 1951
Eospirifer sp. Schuchert 1913
Hedeina sp. Boucot 1957
 Pentamerida - Camerellidae
Camerella sp. Billings 1859
 Pentamerida - Parastrophinidae
Anastrophia sp. Hall 1867
 Pentamerida - Gypidulidae
Gypidulidae "indet. A" Schuchert and Le Vene 1929
gypidulid A
Gypidulidae "indet. B" Schuchert and Le Vene 1929
gypidulid B
 Pentamerida - Clorindidae
 Protorthida - Skenidiidae
Skenidioides sp. Schuchert and Cooper 1931
 Atrypida - Atrypidae
Plectatrypa sp. Schuchert and Cooper 1930
Atrypa "reticularis" Linnaeus 1758
 Rhynchonellida - Trigonirhynchiidae
Rhynchotreta sp. Hall 1879
 Orthida - Rhipidomellidae
Dalejina sp. Havlicek 1953
 Orthida - Dicoelosiidae
Dicoelosia sp. King 1850
 Orthida - Dalmanellidae
Isorthis sp. Kozlowski 1929
Resserella sp. Bancroft 1928
 Orthida - Platystrophiidae
"Platystrophia biforata" = Platystrophia biforatus
"Platystrophia biforata" = Platystrophia biforatus Schlotheim 1820
 Conocardiida - Conocardiidae
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1797 snail
 Nautiloidea -
Nautiloidea indet. Agassiz 1847 nautiloid
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
branching and crustose forms
 Fenestrida - Fenestellidae
 Bireclinata - Monograptidae
Monograptidae indet. Lapworth 1873 graptoloid
 Dendroidea -
Dendroidea indet. Nicholson 1872 graptolite
 Blastoidea -
 Rhombifera - Caryocrinitidae
 Mitrata -
? Mitrata indet. Jaekel 1918
"A possible mitrate was briefly seen (Witzke) in a private collection from the type locality."
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
 Disparida -
? Zophocrinus sp. Miller 1891 Sea lily
Myelodactylus sp. Hall 1852 Sea lily
 Pisocrinida - Pisocrinidae
Parapisocrinus sp. Mu 1954 Sea lily
Pisocrinus sp. de Koninck 1858 Sea lily
 Sagenocrinida -
 Sagenocrinida - Lecanocrinidae
 Cyathocrinida - Thalamocrinidae
Thalamocrinus sp. Miller and Gurley 1895 Sea lily
 Cyathocrinida - Cyathocrinitidae
Gissocrinus sp. Angelin 1878 Sea lily
 Monobathrida - Hirneacrinidae
Hirneacrinidae indet. Frest and Strimple 1977 Sea lily
 Monobathrida - Hapalocrinidae
Hapalocrinidae indet. Jaekel 1895 Sea lily
 Diplobathrida -
 Octactinellida - Astraeospongiidae
Astraeospongium sp. Roemer 1860
 Tabulata -
Tabulata indet. tabulate coral
 Auloporida - Auloporidae
Auloporidae indet. Milne-Edwards and Haime 1850 tabulate coral
 Rugosa -
Rugosa indet. horn coral
 Stauriida - Zaphrentidae
Zaphrentidae indet. Milne-Edwards and Haime 1850 horn coral