Vastan Lignite Mine (Eocene of India)

Where: Gujarat, India (21.3° N, 73.0° E: paleocoordinates 4.3° S, 63.0° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Cambay Shale Formation, Ypresian (56.0 - 47.8 Ma)

• age based on Nummulites burdigalensis, which implies Shallow Benthic Zone 10 according to Bajpai et al, and SBZ 10-11 according to Rose et al.

•most small and large mammals are from two different, immediately superposed beds above Lignite 2 and at the base of the estuarine cycle 1, low in the section, but additional mammals are from supratidal deposits well above the highest lignite at the top of cycle 6 (Rose et al. 2009)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lagoonal; argillaceous, carbonaceous siltstone and claystone

• from a "near-shore lagoonal setting" according to Bajpai et al. 2007 (JVP abstract)
• alternate dark grey carb. shale & greenish black shale/marl or (according to Rose et al. 2006) "dark, organic-rich, clayey silt at the contact between a marine shelly layer, containing shark and fish remains, and a continental clay layer" or (according to Rose et al. 2009) "smaller terrestrial vertebrates... come from a thin lens (<0.5 m thick) of dark, clayey silt and shale with abundant plant matter... Approximately 1-2 m higher is a dark clay zone that has produced larger mammals"

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: original phosphate

Collected in 2004, 2006

Collection methods: bulk, sieve,

• "About a ton of sediment has been screen-washed and has yielded 23 jaws and >140 isolated teeth of continental mammals" (Rose et al.)

•the Bajpai et al. and Rose et al. collections appear to have been made separately, and the latter are in the Department of Geology, H. N. B. Garhwal University

Primary reference: S. Bajpai, V. V. Kapur, D. P. Das, B. N. Tiwari, N. Saravanan and R. Sharma. 2005. Early Eocene land mammals from Vastan Lignite Mine, District Surat (Gujarat), Western India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 50(1):101-113 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 55494: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 27.10.2005, edited by John Alroy, Jason Head, Philip Mannion, Terri Cleary and Patricia Holroyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Rose et al. list four insectivores sensu lato that may or may not be the same as those described by Bajpai et al.: ? Cimolestidae (said to be new), ? Adapisoriculidae (said to be new), a larger insectivore, and ? Erinaceomorpha
unclassified
  -
Insecta
 Hymenoptera - Formicidae
Formicidae indet.1 Latreille 1802 ant
"ant"
 Dicondylia -
Diptera indet.1 Linnaeus 1758 fly
"fly"
Arachnida
  -
Osteichthyes
 Salientia -
Anura indet.22 frog
"?Hyloidea or ?Ranoidea"
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
Eopelobates sp.8 Parker 1929 spadefoot toad
 Salientia - Bombinatoridae
Eobarbourula delfinoi n. gen. n. sp.8
Eobarbourula delfinoi n. gen. n. sp.8 Folie et al. 2013 frog
Holotype: GU/RSR/VAS 5001
 Salientia - Ranidae
"Ranidae" indet.8 Rafinesque 1814 frog
 Salientia - Rhacophoridae
Indorana prasadi n. gen. n. sp.8
Indorana prasadi n. gen. n. sp.8 Folie et al. 2013 moss frog
Holotype: GU/RSR/VAS 5220
 Salientia - Discoglossidae
Discoglossidae indet.22 G√ľnther 1859 painted frog
Aves
 Ornithurae -
Vastanavis eocaena n. gen. n. sp.11
Vastanavis eocaena n. gen. n. sp.11 Mayr et al. 2007 bird
GU/RSR/VAS 441 (holotype). GU/RSR/VAS 442-444, 647
Reptilia
 Squamata - Priscagamidae
Heterodontagama borsukae n. gen. n. sp.14
Heterodontagama borsukae n. gen. n. sp.14 Rana et al. 2013 lizard
GU/RSR/VAS-2035 (holotype), nearly complete left dentary; VAS-2036, nearly complete left maxilla; VAS-2046, anteriormost part of left dentary; VAS-2050, jaw fragment
 Squamata -
Tinosaurus indicus n. sp.12 Prasad and Bajpai 2008 lizard
 Squamata - Agamidae
"Vastanagama susani n. gen. n. sp." = Vastanagama susanae12, Suratagama neeraae n. gen. n. sp.14, Indiagama gujarata n. gen. n. sp.14
"Vastanagama susani n. gen. n. sp." = Vastanagama susanae12 Prasad and Bajpai 2008 lizard
IITR/SB/VLM 1050 (holotype), left dentary; IITR/SB/VLM 793, left dentary; IITR/SB/VLM 886, right dentary; from ref 60272: GU/RSR/VAS-2001 and -2002, two nearly complete right dentaries; VAS-2003, anterior part of left dentary; VAS-2007, anteriormost part of left maxilla; VAS-2031, anteriormost part of right maxilla
Suratagama neeraae n. gen. n. sp.14 Rana et al. 2013 lizard
GU/RSR/VAS-2030 (holotype), nearly complete right dentary; VAS-2033, partial left maxilla; VAS-2040, middle to anterior part of right dentary
Indiagama gujarata n. gen. n. sp.14 Rana et al. 2013 lizard
GU/RSR/VAS-2009 (holotype), incomplete left dentary
 Squamata - Madtsoiidae
? Madtsoiidae indet.13 Hoffstetter 1961 snake
 Squamata - Palaeophiidae
Palaeophiidae indet.22 Lydekker 1888 snake
Palaeophis sp.13 Owen 1841 snake
Palaeophis vastaniensis n. sp.2 Bajpai and Head 2008 snake
 Squamata - Boidae
Boidae indet.22 Gray 1825 boa
 Squamata - Russellophiidae
? Russellophiidae indet.13 Rage 1978 snake
Russellophis crassus n. sp.13 Rage et al. 2008 snake
 Squamata -
Procerophis sahnii n. gen. n. sp.13, Thaumastophis missiaeni n. gen. n. sp.13
Procerophis sahnii n. gen. n. sp.13 Rage et al. 2008 snake
Thaumastophis missiaeni n. gen. n. sp.13 Rage et al. 2008 snake
 Squamata - Palaeophidae
Pterosphenus sp.13 Lucas 1898 lizard
Mammalia
 Cimolesta - Cimolestidae
Suratilestes gingerichi n. gen. n. sp.
Suratilestes gingerichi n. gen. n. sp. Bajpai et al. 2005 eutherian
 Cimolesta - Esthonychidae
cf. Esthonyx sp.19 Cope 1874 tillodont
GU/RSR/VAS 1587, 1651
Anthraconyx hypsomylus n. gen. n. sp.18 Rose et al. 2013 tillodont
GU/RSR/VAS 762 - holotype
 Placentalia -
Primates "indet. 1"6 Linnaeus 1758 primate
Primates indet.16 Linnaeus 1758 primate
 Primates - Omomyidae
Vastanomys major n. sp.20, Vastanomys gracilis n. gen. n. sp.6
Vastanomys major n. sp.20 Rose et al. 2009 tarsier
(GU/RSR/VAS 441 (holotype). GU/RSR/VAS 442, 443, 444, 647
Vastanomys gracilis n. gen. n. sp.6 Bajpai et al. 2005 tarsier
 Primates - Notharctidae
cf. Marcgodinotius sp.20, "Marcgodinotius indicus n. gen. n. sp." = Marcgodinotius indicus6, "Anthrasimias gujaratensis n. gen. n. sp." = Marcgodinotius indicus7, Asiadapis cambayensis n. gen. n. sp.21
cf. Marcgodinotius sp.20 Bajpai et al. 2005 primate
"Marcgodinotius indicus n. gen. n. sp." = Marcgodinotius indicus6 Bajpai et al. 2005 primate
"Anthrasimias gujaratensis n. gen. n. sp." = Marcgodinotius indicus7 Bajpai et al. 2005 primate
Asiadapis cambayensis n. gen. n. sp.21 Rose et al. 2007 primate
 Tribosphenida - Adapisoriculidae
Indolestes kalamensis n. gen. n. sp.9
Indolestes kalamensis n. gen. n. sp.9 Kapur et al. 2017 placental
Holotype: IITR/SB/VLM-804
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Meldimys musak n. sp.15
Meldimys musak n. sp.15 Rana et al. 2008 rodent
 Glires -
Lagomorpha indet.17 Brandt 1885 placental
GU/RSR/VAS 711 and 712
 Perissodactyla - Helaletidae
Vastanolophus holbrooki n. gen. n. sp.24
Vastanolophus holbrooki n. gen. n. sp.24 Smith et al. 2015 odd-toed ungulate
GU/RSR/VAS 323 - holotype; referred specimen: GU/RSR/VAS 1681
 Perissodactyla -
Cambaytherium "sp. A" Bajpai et al. 2005 odd-toed ungulate
Cambaytherium minor n. sp. Bajpai et al. 2005 odd-toed ungulate
Cambaytherium bidens n. sp. Bajpai et al. 2005 odd-toed ungulate
Cambaytherium thewissi n. sp. Bajpai et al. 2005 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Cambaytheriidae
Kalitherium marinus n. gen. n. sp.5
Kalitherium marinus n. gen. n. sp.5 Bajpai et al. 2006 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Anthracobunidae
Indobune vastanensis n. gen. n. sp.22
Indobune vastanensis n. gen. n. sp.22 Rose et al. 2006 odd-toed ungulate
GU/RSR/VAS 5, left maxilla with dP3-4, P4 (from crypt), M1 (holotype). GU/RSR/VAS 18, right M1; GU/RSR/ VAS 12, right maxilla with heavily worn M2; GU/RSR/VAS 1, partial left M3; tentatively referred: GU/RSR/VAS 10, upper C; GU/RSR/VAS 2, left p1; GU/RSR/VAS 3, left p2; GU/RSR/ VAS 4, talonid of right m1
 Tribosphenida - Vastanidae
Vastania sahnia n. gen. n. sp.
Vastania sahnia n. gen. n. sp. Bajpai et al. 2005 placental
 Chiroptera -
Chiroptera indet.22 Blumenbach 1779 bat
"very small"
 Chiroptera - Palaeochiropterygidae
Microchiropteryx folieae n. gen. n. sp.23
Microchiropteryx folieae n. gen. n. sp.23 Smith et al. 2007 bat
 Chiroptera -
Jaegeria cambayensis n. gen. n. sp.4
Jaegeria cambayensis n. gen. n. sp.4 Bajpai et al. 2005 bat
 Chiroptera - Hassianycterididae
Hassianycteris kumari n. sp.23, Cambaya complexus n. gen. n. sp.
Hassianycteris kumari n. sp.23 Smith et al. 2007 bat
Cambaya complexus n. gen. n. sp. Bajpai et al. 2005 bat
 Chiroptera - Archaeonycteridae
Archaeonycteris storchi n. sp.23 Smith et al. 2007 bat
Protonycteris gunnelli n. gen. n. sp.23 Smith et al. 2007 bat
 Chiroptera - Icaronycteridae
Icaronycteris sigei n. sp.23 Smith et al. 2007 bat
 Tribosphenida - Arctocyonidae
? Arctocyonidae indet.3 Murray 1866 condylarth
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
Indohyaenodon raoi n. gen. n. sp.3
Indohyaenodon raoi n. gen. n. sp.3 Bajpai et al. 2009 eutherian
 Theriiformes - Peradectidae
Indodelphis luoi n. gen. n. sp.4
Indodelphis luoi n. gen. n. sp.4 Bajpai et al. 2005 metatherian
 Artiodactyla - Diacodexeidae
Gujaratia pakistanensis Thewissen et al. 1983 even-toed ungulate
Gujaratia indica n. sp. Bajpai et al. 2005 even-toed ungulate
Diacodexis parvus n. sp.10 Kumar et al. 2010 even-toed ungulate
 Sarcobora - Apatemyidae
Frugivastodon cristatus n. gen. n. sp.
Frugivastodon cristatus n. gen. n. sp. Bajpai et al. 2005 insectivoran
Proxapertites
  -
Proxapertites sp.1 Van der Hammen 1956