Mene de Inciarte Tar Seep (Pleistocene of Venezuela)

Also known as Inciarte localidad 185; Inciarte localidad 198

Where: Zulia, Venezuela (10.8° N, 72.2° W: paleocoordinates 10.8° N, 72.2° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• Two geochemically defensible accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon (14C) dates exist for the vertebrate fauna from Mene de Inciarte, namely 25,500 ± 600 14C yr BP (28,456–30,878 cal yr BP) and 27,980 ± 370 14C yr BP (31,165–32,843 cal yr BP) for different collagenous fractions of a single specimen of G. clavipes (Jull et al., 2004). Three older and less precise AMS 14C dates (from 41,000 ± 1300 to 46,900 ± 2600 14C yr BP, or 42,440–46,776 to 45,655–[50,000] cal yr BP) were based on non-collagenous fractions of a single specimen of H. occidentalis, and thus are likely to be contaminated with old (“dead”) carbon from the asphalt.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: tar; unlithified, sandy tar

• the "middle level [yielding most of the fossils] is composed of 80% tar and 20% sand" (Rincon et al. 2008)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk, chemical,

• Specimens are curated at the Museo de Biología, La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela

Primary reference: N. J. Czaplewski, A. D. Rincón, and G. S. Morgan. 2005. Fossil bat (Mammalia: Chiroptera) remains from Inciarte tar pit, Sierra de Perijá, Venezuela. Caribbean Journal of Science 41(4):768-781 [C. Bell/C. Bell]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 63515: authorized by Chris Bell, entered by Chris Bell on 15.08.2006, edited by John Alroy, Matthew Clapham and Juan Carrillo

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Osteichthyes
 Salientia -
Anura indet.3 frog
"ranas"
Reptilia
 Testudines -
Testudines indet.3 Batsch 1788 turtle
"tortugas"
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Calidris sp.6 Gmelin 1789 snipe
Calidris fuscicollis6 Vieillot 1819 white-rumped sandpiper
Calidris canutus6 Linnaeus 1758 red knot
Gallinago "sp. 2"6 Brisson 1760 snipe
Gallinago "sp. 3"6 Brisson 1760 snipe
Gallinago paraguaiae6 Vieillot 1816 South American snipe
Phalaropus lobatus6 Linnaeus 1758 red-necked phalarope
Phalaropus tricolor6 Vieillot 1819 Wilson's phalarope
Tringa flavipes6 Gmelin 1789 lesser yellowlegs
Tringa solitaria6 Wilson 1813 solitary sandpiper
Tringa melanoleuca6 Gmelin 1789 greater yellowlegs
 Charadriiformes - Burhinidae
Burhinus sp.6 Illiger 1811 thick-knee
 Charadriiformes - Charadriidae
Charadrius vociferus6 Linnaeus 1758 killdeer
 Galbuliformes - Bucconidae
Malacoptila sp.6 Gray 1841 bird
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
Cathartes sp.6 Illiger 1811 vulture
Sarcoramphus "new sp."6 Dumeril 1806 king vulture
Coragyps cf. atratus6 Bechstein 1793 black vulture
"Vulturidae indet." = Cathartidae6 Lafresnaye 1839 vulture
Wingegyps "new sp."6 Alvarenga and Olson 2004 New World vulture
 Galliformes - Odontophoridae
Colinus cristatus6 Linnaeus 1758 crested bobwhite
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Netta erythrophthalma6 zu Wied 1833 southern pochard
Cairina moschata6 Linnaeus 1758 muscovy duck
"Nomonyx dominica" = Nomonyx dominicus6 Linnaeus 1766 masked duck
"Anas discors" = Spatula discors6 Linnaeus 1766 blue-winged teal
"Anas clypeata" = Spatula clypeata6 Linnaeus 1758 northern shoveler
Dendrocygna bicolor6 Vieillot 1816 fulvous whistling-duck
Dendrocygna autumnalis6 Linnaeus 1758 black-bellied whistling duck
Sarkidiornis melanotos6 Pennant 1769 comb duck
Anas bahamensis6 Linnaeus 1758 white-cheeked pintail
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco sparverius6 Linnaeus 1758 American kestrel
Falco peregrinus6 Tunstall 1771 Peregrine falcon
Caracara cheriway6 Jacquin 1784 crested caracara
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Asio stygius6 Wagler 1832 stygian owl
Bubo sp.6 Dumeril 1806 eagle-owl
Athene cunicularia6 Molina 1782 burrowing owl
"Strix virgata" = Ciccaba virgata6 Cassin 1849 mottled owl
 Strigiformes - Tytonidae
Tyto alba6 Scopoli 1769 barn owl
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Columbina sp.6 Spix 1825 ground dove
Patagioenas sp.6 Reichenbach 1852 dove
Zenaida cf. auriculata6 Des Murs 1847 eared dove
 Cuculiformes - Cuculidae
Coccyzus americanus6 Linnaeus 1758 yellow-billed cuckoo
 Passeriformes - Icteridae
Gymnomystax mexicanus6 Linnaeus 1766 oriole blackbird
Euphagus cf. magnirostris6 Miller 1929 large-billed blackbird
Chrysomus icterocephalus6 Linnaeus 1766 yellow-hooded blackbird
Sturnella magna6 Linnaeus 1758 eastern meadowlark
Quiscalus lugubris6 Swainson 1838 carib grackle
Icterus spurius6 Linnaeus 1766 orchard oriole
 Passeriformes - Thraupidae
Sicalis flaveola6 Linnaeus 1766 saffron finch
Volatinia jacarina6 Linnaeus 1766 blue-black grassquit
 Passeriformes - Hirundinidae
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota6 Vieillot 1816 cliff swallow
 Passeriformes - Tyrannidae
Myiozetetes similis6 von Spix 1825 social flycatcher
Pitangus lictor6 Lichtenstein 1823 lesser kiskadee
Pitangus sulphuratus6 Linnaeus 1766 great kiskadee
Tyrannus dominicensis6 Gmelin 1788 gray kingbird
Tyrannus melancholicus6 Vieillot 1819 tropical kingbird
Arundinicola leucocephala6 Linnaeus 1764 white-headed marsh-tyrant
 Passeriformes - Vireonidae
Hylophilus flavipes6 Lafresnaye 1845 scrub greenlet
 Passeriformes - Furnariidae
Furnariidae indet.6 Gray 1840 perching bird
 Caprimulgiformes - Trochilidae
Trochilidae indet.6 Vigors 1825 hummingbird
 Caprimulgiformes - Caprimulgidae
Caprimulgus sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 nightjar
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
"Aramides cajanea" = Aramides cajaneus6
"Aramides cajanea" = Aramides cajaneus6 Statius Muller 1776 Gray-necked wood-rail
 Gruiformes - Aramidae
Aramus guarauna6 Linnaeus 1762 limpkin
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ardeidae indet.6 Leach 1820 heron
Tigrisoma sp.6 Swainson 1827 heron
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Ciconiidae indet.6 Sundevall 1836 stork
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipitridae "sp. 7"6 Viellot 1816 hawk
Accipitridae "sp. 8"6 Viellot 1816 hawk
Buteo sp.6 de Lacepède 1799 hawk
Buteogallus "new sp."6 Lesson 1830 black-hawks
Buteogallus aequinoctialis6 Gmelin 1788 rufous crab-hawk
Buteogallus meridionalis6 Latham 1790 savanna hawk
Geranoaetus melanoleucus6 Vieillot 1819 black-chested buzzard eagle
Reptilia
 Loricata -
Crocodylia indet.3 crocodilian
"cocodrilos"
 Squamata -
Squamata indet.3 Oppel 1811 squamates
"lagartos"
 Serpentes -
Serpentes indet.3 snake
"serpientes"
Mammalia
 Primates -
Primates indet.3 Linnaeus 1758 primate
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
Mixotoxodon larensis2 Van Frank 1957 notoungulate
 Rodentia - Muridae
Heteromys anomalus4 forest spiny pocket mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Holochilus sciureus4 Wagner 1842 marsh rat
Sigmodon hispidus4 Say and Ord 1825 hispid cotton rat
Calomys hummelinki4 vesper mouse
 Rodentia - Caviidae
Neochoerus sp.4 Hay 1926 caviomorph
 Rodentia -
 Rodentia - Echimyidae
Echimys sp.4 Cuvier 1809 spiny tree-rat
Dactylomyinae indet.4 Tate 1935 spiny rat
said to be new
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus (Amerhippus) santaeelenae3 Spillmann 1938 horse
 Chiroptera - Phyllostomidae
Phyllostomidae indet. Gray 1825 leaf-nosed bat
Lophostoma cf. silvicolum d'Orbigny 1836 round-eared bat
Trachops cirrhosus Spix 1823 fringe-lipped bat
cf. Micronycteris sp. Gray 1866 big-eared bat
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Rhogeessa sp. Allen 1866 lesser yellow bat
Eptesicus fuscus Beauvois 1796 big brown bat
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canidae indet.1 Fischer 1817 canid
Protocyon sp.1 Giebel 1855 canid
Protocyon troglodytes1 Lund 1838 canid
Canis dirus1 Leidy 1858 dire wolf
Urocyon cinereoargenteus4 Schreber 1775 gray fox
Urocyon cf. cinereoargenteus1 Schreber 1775 gray fox
 Carnivora - Felidae
Smilodon populator5 Lund 1842 saber-toothed cat
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
"Dasypus sabanicola" = Dasypus (Dasypus) sabanicola4 Mondolfi 1967 Llanos long-nosed armadillo
Propraopus sulcatus4 Lund 1838 armadillo
 Xenarthra - Megatheriidae
Eremotherium sp.3 Spillmann 1948 edentate
 Xenarthra - Pampatheriidae
Pampatherium humboldtii4 Lund 1839 edentate
 Xenarthra - Glyptodontidae
Glyptodon cf. clavipes3 Owen 1839 glyptodon
see also Rincón et al. 2008
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Palaeolama (Palaeolama) sp.3 Gervais 1869 camel
"Paleolama (Paleolama)"
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Mazama sp.3 Rafinesque 1817 brocket deer
Odocoileus sp.3 Rafinesque 1832 New World deer
 Didelphimorphia - Didelphidae
Didelphis sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 large American opossum