Karikal (Pliocene of India)

Also known as 58 N/13, A.1-2, B.1-2

Where: India (10.9° N, 79.8° E: paleocoordinates 9.3° N, 79.4° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Pliocene (5.3 - 2.6 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From unknown lithostratigraphic unit (not stated in text) and hence lithostratigraphic relationships are unknown. AGE: Pliocene, based on faunal correlations with other assemblages of the Middle East, Pakistan, India and Indonesia.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: coastal; unlithified siliciclastic sediments

• ENVIRONMENT: Siliciclastic facies. No other environmenta data reported in text.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Unknown, presumably siliciclastic. LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, assumed given apparent excellent preservation of specimens, and large collection.

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• COLLECTOR: Unknown. REPOSITORY: Presumably BMNH.

Primary reference: F. E. Eames. 1950. On the ages of certain Upper Tertiary beds of Peninsula India and Ceylon. Geological Magazine 87:233-252 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 77658: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 16.01.2008

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Limited to representative forms of gastropoda and bivalvia. NOMENCLATURE: Not an authoritative publication and somewhat antiquated, though nevertheless, consistent use of subgenera and species-resolution assignments permit nomenclatural vetting.
 Arcida - Arcidae
"Anadara (Scapharca) bonneti" = Scapharca, "Anadara ferruginea" = Anadara (Cunearca) ferruginea, Anadara tambacana, Anadara craticulata
"Anadara (Scapharca) bonneti" = Scapharca clam
"Anadara ferruginea" = Anadara (Cunearca) ferruginea Reeve 1844 rusty ark
Anadara tambacana Martin 1883 ark
Anadara craticulata Nyst 1848 ark
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
 Arcida - Noetiidae
"Arcopsis bataviana" = Arcopsis (Arcopsis) bataviana
"Arcopsis bataviana" = Arcopsis (Arcopsis) bataviana Martin 1883 clam
 Arcida - Cucullaeidae
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Pecten vexilloides, "Chlamys senatoria" = Mimachlamys senatoria, Chlamys (Aequipecten) tjaringinensis, "Chlamys (Aequipecten) martini" = Aequipecten
"Chlamys senatoria" = Mimachlamys senatoria Gmelin 1791 scallop
Chlamys (Aequipecten) tjaringinensis Martin 1909 scallop
INCLUDES: Chlamys (Aequipecten) tjaringinensis karikalensis
"Chlamys (Aequipecten) martini" = Aequipecten scallop
 Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
"Ostrea (Lopha) hyotis" = Hyotissa hyotis
"Ostrea (Lopha) hyotis" = Hyotissa hyotis Linnaeus 1758 Honeycomb Oyster
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
"Ostrea (Cubitostrea) karikalensis" = Cubitostrea
"Ostrea (Cubitostrea) karikalensis" = Cubitostrea oyster
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
"Crassatina" bonneti clam
INCLUDES: "Crassatina" bonneti marwicki
 Carditida - Carditidae
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
 Cardiida - Glossidae
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Clausinella karikalensis, Timoclea semiradiata, Timoclea "sp. A", "Macrocallista (Costacallista) erycina" = Costacallista erycina, Sunetta dautzenbergi, "Circe (Circenita) tivelinoides" = Gouldia (Circenita), "Clementia papyracea" = Clementia (Clementia) papyracea, "Cyprimeria" nepotina
Timoclea "sp. A" Brown 1827 venus clam
"Macrocallista (Costacallista) erycina" = Costacallista erycina Linnaeaus 1758 venus clam
"Circe (Circenita) tivelinoides" = Gouldia (Circenita) venus clam
"Clementia papyracea" = Clementia (Clementia) papyracea Gray 1825 venus clam
 Cardiida - Solecurtidae
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
 Cardiida - Psammobiidae
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Nuculana (Saccella) inaequirugata" = Saccella
"Nuculana (Saccella) inaequirugata" = Saccella pointed nut clam
 Ptenoglossa - Vasidae
"Tudicula spirilla" = Tudicla
"Tudicula spirilla" = Tudicla snail
 Opisthobranchia - Cylichnidae
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
"Olivancillaria (Anazola) acuminata" = Anazola, Olivancillaria gibbosa, Ancilla (Alocospira) tornata, "Ancilla (Sparellina) candida" = Ancilla ampla, Oliva (Neocyclindrus) irisans
"Olivancillaria (Anazola) acuminata" = Anazola olive snail
"Ancilla (Sparellina) candida" = Ancilla ampla Gmelin 1791 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
"Atilia crassicostata" = Mitrella (Atilia)
"Atilia crassicostata" = Mitrella (Atilia) snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Nassarius (Hebra) bonneti Cossmann 1901 true whelk
Cantharus tranquebaricus Gmelin 1791 true whelk
Babylonia spirata Linnaeus 1758 true whelk
""Austrosipho" heptozodes" = Penion true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Cyllene varians" = Cyllene fuscata, Nassaria mekranica, Nassarius francoindicus, "Nassarius (Amyclina) dimorphus" = Nassarius (Zeuxis) olivaceus, "Nassarius (Niotha) gemmulatus" = Nassarius (Niotha) variegatus, "Nassarius (Hinia) colpophorus" = Nassarius (Hinia), ""Hinia" karikalensis" = Nassarius (Hinia), Nassarius (Telasco) verbeeki
"Cyllene varians" = Cyllene fuscata Adams 1851 snail
"Nassarius (Amyclina) dimorphus" = Nassarius (Zeuxis) olivaceus BruguiƩre 1789 snail
"Nassarius (Niotha) gemmulatus" = Nassarius (Niotha) variegatus Adams 1851 snail
"Nassarius (Hinia) colpophorus" = Nassarius (Hinia) snail
""Hinia" karikalensis" = Nassarius (Hinia) snail
Nassarius (Telasco) verbeeki Martin 1895 snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Fusinus perplexus, ""Clavilithes" verbeeki" = Mancorus verbeeki
""Clavilithes" verbeeki" = Mancorus verbeeki Martin 1895 snail
 Neogastropoda -
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Trigonostoma crispatum Sowerby 1855 snail
"Merica asperella" = Cancellaria (Merica) snail
"Merica verbeeki" = Cancellaria (Merica) snail
 Neogastropoda - Cystiscidae
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
"Marginella (Eratoidea) bonneti" = Eratoidea, "Marginella (Eratoidea) karikalensis" = Eratoidea, "Marginella (Prunum) oligoptycha" = Prunum
"Marginella (Eratoidea) bonneti" = Eratoidea margin shell
"Marginella (Eratoidea) karikalensis" = Eratoidea margin shell
"Marginella (Prunum) oligoptycha" = Prunum margin shell
 Neogastropoda - Turbinellidae
"Xancus pirum" = Turbinella, ""Afer" couderti" = Tudivasum (Afer), "Afer macrospira" = Tudivasum (Afer)
"Xancus pirum" = Turbinella snail
""Afer" couderti" = Tudivasum (Afer) snail
"Afer macrospira" = Tudivasum (Afer) snail
 Neogastropoda - Costellariidae
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
""Xymenella" infratabulata" = Xymene, Cymia sacellum, "Typhis (Laevityphis) tetragoniatus" = Siphonochelus (Laevityphis), Murex (Tubicauda) bonneti, Muricopsis diarti
""Xymenella" infratabulata" = Xymene murex snail
Cymia sacellum Chemntiz 1788 murex snail
"Typhis (Laevityphis) tetragoniatus" = Siphonochelus (Laevityphis) murex snail
Murex (Tubicauda) bonneti Cossman 1903 murex snail
Muricopsis diarti murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
""Mangelia" quadricarinata" = Cythara (Mangelia), ""Mangilia" houdasi" = Cythara (Mangelia)
""Mangelia" quadricarinata" = Cythara (Mangelia) snail
""Mangilia" houdasi" = Cythara (Mangelia) snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
"Turricula javana" = Turricula turrid
"Turricula nellii" = Turricula turrid
""Surcula" streptopleura" = Turricula turrid
Perrona unisulcata Cossmann 1900 turrid
"Brachytoma sacra" = Tylotiella sacra Reeve 1845 turrid
 Neogastropoda - Raphitomidae
 Neogastropoda -
 Neogastropoda - Borsoniidae
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Conus (Leptoconus) vimineus" = Conasprella (Fusiconus) vimineus Reeve 1849 cone shell
SUBSPECIES: Conus (Leptoconus) vimineus subvimineus
Conus (Dendroconus) figulinus Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
Conus (Dendroconus) quercinus Solander 1786 cone shell
Conus (Leptoconus) bonneti Cossmann 1900 cone shell
Conus (Lithoconus) litteratus Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Duplicaria mariesi, "Terebra (Strioterebrum) continuicosta" = Strioterebrum, "Terebra (Strioterebrum) karikalensis" = Strioterebrum, "Terebra (Strioterebrum) vredenburgi" = Strioterebrum, "Terebra (Strioterebrum) intermedia" = Strioterebrum intermedia, Terebra (Myruella) cingulifera
Duplicaria mariesi auger snail
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) continuicosta" = Strioterebrum auger snail
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) karikalensis" = Strioterebrum auger snail
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) vredenburgi" = Strioterebrum auger snail
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) intermedia" = Strioterebrum intermedia Vredenburg 1921 auger snail
 Capuloidea - Capulidae
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
Tibia fusus true conch
"Strombus karikalensis" = Strombus (Laevistrombus) karikalensis Cossmann 1903 conch
 Stromboidea - Rostellariidae
Dientomochilus margaritae, "Dientomochilus cancellatus" = Varicospira cancellata
"Dientomochilus cancellatus" = Varicospira cancellata Lamarck 1816 snail
 Ficoidea - Ficidae
 Vanikoroidea - Vanikoridae
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica forskali, Natica sp., Natica rostalina, "Natica (Naticarius) prosthenoglossa" = Naticarius, Sinum (Sigaretotrema) aratulum, "Polinices (Euspira) globosus" = Euspira, Polinices martini, Polinices melanostomus
Natica forskali moon snail
Natica sp. Scopoli 1777 moon snail
Natica rostalina Jenkins 1864 moon snail
"Natica (Naticarius) prosthenoglossa" = Naticarius moon snail
"Polinices (Euspira) globosus" = Euspira moon snail
Polinices martini moon snail
Polinices melanostomus Gmelin 1791 moon snail
 Vermetoidea - Vermetidae
Lemintina javana worm shell
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
Sigapatella subcentralis, "Crucibulum (Bicatillus) conulatum" = Calyptraea (Bicatillus)
"Crucibulum (Bicatillus) conulatum" = Calyptraea (Bicatillus) slipper shell
 Xenophoroidea - Xenophoridae
"Tugurium calculiferum" = Onustus
"Tugurium calculiferum" = Onustus carrier shell
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
"Argobuccinum (Ranella) bitubercularis" = Gyrineum bituberculare
"Argobuccinum (Ranella) bitubercularis" = Gyrineum bituberculare Lamarck 1816 triton shell
 Tonnoidea - Personidae
"Distorsio reticulatum" = Distorsio reticularis
"Distorsio reticulatum" = Distorsio reticularis Linnaeus 1767 snail
SUBSPECIES: Distorsio reticulatum cancellinum
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
"Phalium (Semicassis) bonneti" = Semicassis, "Phalium (Semicassis) sculptum" = Semicassis
"Phalium (Semicassis) bonneti" = Semicassis snail
"Phalium (Semicassis) sculptum" = Semicassis snail
 Rissooidea - Rissoidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Potamididae
 Sorbeoconcha - Thiaridae
"Plotia balteata" = Thiara (Plotia)
"Plotia balteata" = Thiara (Plotia) snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
"Turritella (Zaria) angulata" = Kapalmerella ranikoti, "Turritella (Haustator) eucosmeta" = Haustator, "Turritella (Haustator) trifunis" = Haustator, Protoma eudeli
"Turritella (Zaria) angulata" = Kapalmerella ranikoti Vredenburg 1928 turret shell
"Turritella (Haustator) eucosmeta" = Haustator turret shell
"Turritella (Haustator) trifunis" = Haustator turret shell
Protoma eudeli turret shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
"Clava bonneti" = Rhinoclavis cerith snail
 Heterostropha - Acteonidae
Pupa solidula Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Heterostropha - Ringiculidae
 Heterostropha - Mathildidae
 Pyramidelloidea - Pyramidellidae
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
"Architectonica affine" = Architectonica affinis Sowerby 1840 sundial
[entered as Architectonica affinis]
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
"Solariella" pachyzodes top snail
INCLUDES: "Solariella" pachyzodes bonneti
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
"Dentalium (Tesseracme) proteiforme" = Tesseracme
"Dentalium (Tesseracme) proteiforme" = Tesseracme tusk shell