Felixstowe, Suffolk [Red Crag] (Pliocene of the United Kingdom)

Where: England, United Kingdom (52.0° N, 1.3° E: paleocoordinates 52.0° N, 1.0° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Red Crag Formation, Late/Upper Pliocene (3.6 - 2.6 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From the Red Crag, which is regionally overlies the Coralline Crag. AGE: Late Pliocene, according to Rayner, 1981 on the basis of foraminiferal and palynological biostratigraphy. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: From unknown position within formation.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: coastal; unlithified siliciclastic sediments

• ENVIRONMENT: Shallow marine siliciclastic.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Not stated in text, but siliciclastic based on observation of specimens. LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, based on observation and figured specimens.

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: original aragonite, original calcite

Collection methods: COLLECTOR: Not stated, but probably Stearns Wood, c. 1840's-1870's. REPOSITORY: Not stated in text.

Primary reference: S. V. Wood. 1848. A monograph of the Crag Mollusca or, descriptions of shells from the middle and upper Tertiaries of the East of England. Part 1. Univalves 1-208 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 84819: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 13.11.2008

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Exhaustive for mollusca. Other volumes when entered will include bryozoa, brachiopoda, and anthozoa. NOMENCLATURE: Authoritative publication, but with antiquated nomenclature, which is revised where possible through more recent sources.
 Arcida - Arcidae
Arca lactea1 Linnaeus 1767 ark
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Pectunculus glycimeris" = Glycymeris1, "Pectunculus subobliquus" = Glycymeris1, "Pectunculus pilosus" = Glycymeris pilosa1
"Pectunculus glycimeris" = Glycymeris1 clam
"Pectunculus subobliquus" = Glycymeris1 clam
"Pectunculus pilosus" = Glycymeris pilosa1 Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten maximus" = Pecten maxima1, "Pecten pusio" = Talochlamys pusio1, "Pecten opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis1
"Pecten maximus" = Pecten maxima1 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Pecten pusio" = Talochlamys pusio1 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Pecten opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis1 Linnaeus 1758 scallop
 Pectinida - Limidae
Lima exilis1 Wood 1839 file clam
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 jingle
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 oyster
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus edulis1 Linnaeus 1758 mussel
 Carditida - Astartidae
"Woodia digitaria" = Digitaria digitaria1 Linnaeus 1758 clam
Astarte burtini1 clam
Astarte compressa1 Montague 1808 clam
Astarte crebrilirata1 Woods 1850 clam
Astarte incrassata1 Brocchi 1814 clam
"Astarte obliquata" = Astarte (Digitariopsis) obliquata1 Sowerby 1817 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
Cardita corbis1 Philippi 1836 clam
Cardita chamaeformis1 Sowerby 1825 clam
Cardita senilis1 Lamarck 1805 clam
Cardita scalaris1 Sowerby 1825 clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
"Corbula striata" = Caryocorbula striata1, "Corbulomya complanata" = Lentidium (Lentidium) complanatum1
"Corbula striata" = Caryocorbula striata1 Lamarck 1801 clam
"Corbulomya complanata" = Lentidium (Lentidium) complanatum1 Sowerby 1822 clam
 Pholadida - Myidae
"Mya arenaria" = Mya (Arenomya) arenaria1
"Mya arenaria" = Mya (Arenomya) arenaria1 Linnaeus 1758 softshell clam
 Pholadida - Pholadidae
"Pholas crispata" = Zirfaea crispata1, "Pholas cylindrica" = Barnea (Barnea) cylindrica1
"Pholas crispata" = Zirfaea crispata1 Linnaeus 1758 clam
"Pholas cylindrica" = Barnea (Barnea) cylindrica1 Sowerby 1818 clam
 Cardiida - Gastrochaenidae
"Gastrochaena dubia" = Gastrochaena (Rocellaria) dubia1
"Gastrochaena dubia" = Gastrochaena (Rocellaria) dubia1 Pennant 1777 clam
 Cardiida -
"Astarte omalii" = Isocrassina omalii1, "Astarte basterotii" = Isocrassina basteroti2
"Astarte omalii" = Isocrassina omalii1 De la Jonkaire 1823 clam
"Astarte basterotii" = Isocrassina basteroti2 De la Jonkaire 1823 clam
 Cardiida - Arcticidae
"Cyprina islandica" = Arctica islandica1
"Cyprina islandica" = Arctica islandica1 Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Mactra procrassa n. sp.2, Mactra ovalis1, "Mactra arcuata" = Spisula arcuata1
Mactra procrassa n. sp.2 Woods 1850 clam
Mactra ovalis1 Sowerby 1817 clam
"Mactra arcuata" = Spisula arcuata1 Sowerby 1817 clam
 Cardiida - Ungulinidae
Diplodonta astartea1 Nyst 1835 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Venus fasciata" = Clausinella fasciata1 da Costa 1778 venus clam
Tapes pullastra1 venus clam
Tapes virgineus1 venus clam
Artemis lentiformis1 Sowerby 1818 venus clam
"Cytherea rudis" = Pitar (Pitar) rudis1 Poli 1795 venus clam
"Cytherea chione" = Callista (Callista) chione1 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax politus1 Poli 1791 clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
Gastrana laminosa1 Sowerby 1827 tellin clam
"Tellina obliqua" = Macoma (Macoma) obliqua1 Sowerby 1817 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Psammobiidae
"Psammobia sp." = Gari (Psammobia)1
"Psammobia sp." = Gari (Psammobia)1 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium decorticatum" = Laevicardium (Laevicardium) decorticatum1 Wood 1840 cockle
Cardium angustatum1 Sowerby 1821 cockle
Cardium venustum1 Wood 1840 cockle
"Cardium parkinsoni" = Laevicardium (Dinocardium) parkinsoni1 Sowerby 1814 cockle
"Cardium echinatum" = Acanthocardia (Acanthocardia) echinata1 Linnaeus 1767 cockle
"Cardium edule" = Cerastoderma edule1 Linnaeus 1758 cockle
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
"Saxicava arctica" = Hiatella (Hiatella) arctica1 Linnaeus 1767 clam
Panopea faujasii1 clam
 Solenida - Solenidae
Solen siliqua1 Linnaeus 1767 clam
Solen ensis1 Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
"Lucina borealis" = Lucinoma (Lucinoma) borealis1
"Lucina borealis" = Lucinoma (Lucinoma) borealis1 Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
"Nucula laevigata" = Leionucula laevigata1, "Nucula nucleus" = Nucula (Nucula) nucleus1, "Nucula cobboldae" = Acila (Truncacila) cobboldae1, "Nucula cobboldiae" = Acila (Truncacila) cobboldae2
"Nucula laevigata" = Leionucula laevigata1 Sowerby 1818 nut clam
"Nucula nucleus" = Nucula (Nucula) nucleus1 Linnaeus 1758 nut clam
"Nucula cobboldae" = Acila (Truncacila) cobboldae1 Linnaeus 1767 divaricate nutclam
"Nucula cobboldiae" = Acila (Truncacila) cobboldae2 Linnaeus 1767 divaricate nutclam
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Leda oblongoides" = Nuculana1
"Leda oblongoides" = Nuculana1 pointed nut clam
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
"Scalaria funiculus" = Cirsotrema funiculus1, "Scalaria foliacea" = Epitonium foliaceum1
"Scalaria funiculus" = Cirsotrema funiculus1 Wood 1872 wentletrap
"Scalaria foliacea" = Epitonium foliaceum1 Sowerby 1825 wentletrap
 Patellogastropoda - Acmaeidae
 Cephalaspidea - Cylichnidae
"Bulla cylindracea" = Cylichna (Cylichna) cylindracea1
"Bulla cylindracea" = Cylichna (Cylichna) cylindracea1 Pennant 1777 snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
Columbella sulcata1 Sowerby 1823 snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
"Buccinum dalei" = Liomesus dalei1, "Trophon alveolatus" = Scalaspira (Scalaspira) alveolatus1, "Trophon altus" = Colus altus1, Buccinum undatum1
"Buccinum dalei" = Liomesus dalei1 Sowerby 1825 true whelk
"Trophon alveolatus" = Scalaspira (Scalaspira) alveolatus1 Sowerby 1829 true whelk
"Trophon altus" = Colus altus1 Wood 1874 true whelk
Buccinum undatum1 Linnaeus 1758 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassa labiosa" = Amyclina labiosa1, "Nassa consociata" = Nassarius (Tritonella) consociatus1, "Nassa pygmaea" = Nassarius pygmaeus1, "Nassa incrassata" = Nassarius incrassatus1, "Nassa reticosa" = Nassarius (Uzita) reticosus1, "Nassa granulata" = Nassarius granulatus1, "Nassa propinqua" = Nassarius (Hinia) propinquus1
"Nassa labiosa" = Amyclina labiosa1 Sowerby 1824 snail
"Nassa consociata" = Nassarius (Tritonella) consociatus1 Wood 1848 snail
"Nassa pygmaea" = Nassarius pygmaeus1 Lamarck 1822 snail
"Nassa incrassata" = Nassarius incrassatus1 Müller 1773 snail
"Nassa reticosa" = Nassarius (Uzita) reticosus1 Sowerby 1815 snail
"Nassa granulata" = Nassarius granulatus1 Sowerby 1815 snail
"Nassa propinqua" = Nassarius (Hinia) propinquus1 Sowerby 1824 snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Cancellaria (Admete) viridula1 Fabricius 1780 admete
Cancellaria scalaroides1 snail
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
"Voluta lamberti" = Scaphella (Scaphella) lamberti1
"Voluta lamberti" = Scaphella (Scaphella) lamberti1 Sowerby 1823 volute
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Trophon costifer1 murex snail
Trophon gracilis1 murex snail
Trophon olavii1 murex snail
Trophon scalariformis1 murex snail
Trophon elegans Charlesworth 1837 murex snail
Trophon muricatus1 Montagu 1803 murex snail
INCLUDES SUBSPECIES: Trophon muricatus exossus
"Purpura tetragona" = Spinucella tetragona1 Sowerby 1825 murex snail
"Purpura lapillus" = Nucella lapillus1 Linnaeus 1758 murex snail
"Purpura incrassata" = Nucella incrassata1 Sowerby 1825 murex snail
Murex tortuosus1 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
"Pleurotoma nebula" = Mangelia nebula1
"Pleurotoma nebula" = Mangelia nebula1 Montagu 1803 snail
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
"Pleurotoma scalaris" = Spirotropis badensis1
"Pleurotoma scalaris" = Spirotropis badensis1 Janssen 1993 snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
"Pleurotoma interrupta" = Turris1, "Pleurotoma trevelyana" = Turris1, "Pleurotoma costata" = Turris1, Pleurotoma turris1, Pleurotoma turricula1
"Pleurotoma interrupta" = Turris1 turrid
"Pleurotoma trevelyana" = Turris1 turrid
"Pleurotoma costata" = Turris1 turrid
Pleurotoma turris1 Lamarck 1822 turrid
Pleurotoma turricula1 Montagu 1803 turrid
 Neogastropoda - Raphitomidae
Raphitoma submarginata1 Bellardi 1847 snail
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra inversa1 Nyst 1843 auger snail
Terebra canalis1 Wood 1848 auger snail
 Capuloidea - Capulidae
Capulus ungaricus1 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
Rostellaria gracilenta1 Wood 1882 true conch
 Stromboidea - Rostellariidae
"Rostellaria lucida" = Tibia (Eotibia) lucida1
"Rostellaria lucida" = Tibia (Eotibia) lucida1 Sowerby 1815 snail
 Stromboidea - Aporrhaidae
"Aporrhais pespelicani" = Aporrhais pespelecani1
"Aporrhais pespelicani" = Aporrhais pespelecani1 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Littorinoidea - Littorinidae
Eulimene pendula1, "Lacuna (Medoria) terebellata" = Eula terebellata1, Littorina littorea1
Eulimene pendula1 periwinkle
"Lacuna (Medoria) terebellata" = Eula terebellata1 Nyst 1835 periwinkle
Littorina littorea1 periwinkle
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
"Eulima intermedia" = Polygyreulima intermedia1
"Eulima intermedia" = Polygyreulima intermedia1 Cantraine 1835 snail
 Velutinoidea - Triviidae
"Cypraea europaea" = Trivia monacha1, "Cypraea avellana" = Niveria avellana1
"Cypraea europaea" = Trivia monacha1 da Costa 1778 snail
originally entered Cypraea europea
"Cypraea avellana" = Niveria avellana1 Sowerby 1823 snail
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica multipunctata1, "Natica clausa" = Cryptonatica affinis1, "Natica catenoides" = Euspira catenoides1, "Natica catena" = Euspira catena1, "Natica hemiclausa" = Euspira helicina hemiclausa1
"Natica clausa" = Cryptonatica affinis1 Gmelin 1791 moon snail
"Natica catenoides" = Euspira catenoides1 Wood 1842 moon snail
"Natica catena" = Euspira catena1 da Costa 1778 moon snail
"Natica hemiclausa" = Euspira helicina hemiclausa1 Sowerby 1824 moon snail
 Vermetoidea - Vermetidae
"Vermetus intortus" = Petaloconchus intortus1
"Vermetus intortus" = Petaloconchus intortus1 Lamarck 1818 worm shell
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
Calyptraea chinensis1 Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
"Cassidaria bicatenata" = Galeodea bicatenata
"Cassidaria bicatenata" = Galeodea bicatenata Sowerby 1815 snail
 Rissooidea - Rissoidae
"Rissoa curticostata" = Rissoa (Turboella) curticostata1
"Rissoa curticostata" = Rissoa (Turboella) curticostata1 Wood 1848 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Potamididae
"Cerithium tricinctum" = Potamides (Ptychopotamides) tricinctus1
"Cerithium tricinctum" = Potamides (Ptychopotamides) tricinctus1 Brocchi 1814 horn snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
"Turritella incrassata" = Turritella (Haustator) incrassata1
"Turritella incrassata" = Turritella (Haustator) incrassata1 Sowerby 1814 turret shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
Cerithium variculosum1 Nyst 1844 cerith snail
Cerithium granosum1 Wood 1842 cerith snail
 Heterostropha - Ringiculidae
Ringicula buccinea1 Sowerby 1823 snail
 Pulmonata - Ellobiidae
"Melampus pyramidalis" = Ellobium pyramidale1
"Melampus pyramidalis" = Ellobium pyramidale1 Sowerby 1822 pulmonate
 Pyramidelloidea - Pyramidellidae
"Chemnitzia internodula" = Turbonilla (Pyrgolidium) internodula1
"Chemnitzia internodula" = Turbonilla (Pyrgolidium) internodula1 Wood 1848 snail
 Fissurelloidea - Fissurellidae
Emarginula fissura1, "Fissurella graeca" = Diodora graeca1
Emarginula fissura1 Linnaeus 1758 snail
"Fissurella graeca" = Diodora graeca1 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Trochus montacuti1, Trochus tumidus1, "Trochus cinerarius" = Gibbula cineraria1, "Trochus zizyphinus" = Calliostoma zizyphinum1
Trochus tumidus1 top snail
"Trochus cinerarius" = Gibbula cineraria1 Linnaeus 1758 top snail
"Trochus zizyphinus" = Calliostoma zizyphinum1 Linnaeus 1758 top snail
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Dentalium dentalis1 tusk shell
Dentalium entalis1 tusk shell