Bell Cave: Late/Upper Pleistocene, Alabama

List of taxa
Where & when
Geology
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Salientia - Ranidae
Rana sp. Linnaeus 1758
Holman et al. 1990
Rana catesbeiana Shaw 1802
Holman et al. 1990
Rana pipiens Schreber 1782
Holman et al. 1990
Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla gratiosa Le Conte 1856
Holman et al. 1990
Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo sp. Laurenti 1768
Holman et al. 1990
Bufo woodhousii (Girard 1854)
Holman et al. 1990
misspelling Bufo woodhousei
subspecies fowleri
Bufo americanus Holbrook 1836
Holman et al. 1990
Urodela
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin 1803)
Holman et al. 1990
Ambystoma sp. (Tschudi 1838)
Holman et al. 1990
original and current combination Amblystoma
Ambystoma maculotum
Holman et al. 1990
original and current combination Amblystoma
Eurycea sp.
Holman et al. 1990
Desmognathus sp. Baird 1850
Holman et al. 1990
Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope 1859
Holman et al. 1990
Plethodon glutinosus Green 1818
Holman et al. 1990
Reptilia - Testudines - Trionychidae
Holman et al. 1990
    = Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825
Alroy 2009
    = Apalone sp. Rafinesque 1832
Jasinski 2013
Trionyx spiniferus LeSueur 1827
Holman et al. 1990
    = Apalone spinifera LeSueur 1827
Jasinski 2013
Reptilia - Testudines - Emydidae
Chrysemys picta (Schneider 1783)
Holman et al. 1990
Graptemys geographica (Le Sueur 1817)
Holman et al. 1990
Pseudemys sp. Gray 1856
Holman et al. 1990
Pseudemys cocinna
Holman et al. 1990
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Laridae
Sterna sp. Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Scolopacidae
Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein 1812)
Parmalee 1992
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Gmelin 1789)
Parmalee 1992
recombined as Tringa semipalmata
Philohela minor (Gmelin 1789)
Parmalee 1992
original and current combination Scolopax minor
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Phasianidae
Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus 1766)
Parmalee 1992
Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Odontophoridae
Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Anatidae
Branta canadensis (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Cygnus sp. Garsault 1764
Parmalee 1992
Mergus sp. Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Aythya collaris (Donovan 1809)
Parmalee 1992
Aythya cf. valisineria (Wilson 1814)
Parmalee 1992
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Anas crecca Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Falconidae
Falco sparverius Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Strigidae
Otus asio (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
recombined as Megascops asio
Strix cf. varia (Barton 1799)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Columbidae
Ectopistes migratorius (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Picidae
Melanerpes cf. carolinus (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Picoides cf. villosus (Linnaeus 1766)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda
Passeriformes indet. Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Mimidae
Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus 1766)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Icteridae
Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Corvidae
Pica pica (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Corvus corax Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Hirundinidae
Hirundinidae indet. Rafinesque 1815
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Parulidae
Parulinae indet.
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Tyrannidae
Sayornis cf. phoebe (Latham 1790)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Turdidae
Turdus migratorius Linnaeus 1758
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Cardinalidae
Piranga cf. olivacea (Gmelin 1789)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Gruidae
Grus sp. Brisson 1760
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Gaviidae
Gavia immer (Brunnich 1764)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Podicipedidae
Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus 1758)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Accipitridae
Accipiter striatus Vieillot 1897
Parmalee 1992
Haliaeetus cf. leucocephalus (Linnaeus 1766)
Parmalee 1992
Reptilia - Squamata - Polychrotidae
Anolis carolinensis Voight 1832
Holman et al. 1990
Reptilia - Squamata - Colubridae
Diadophis punctatus Linnaeus
Holman et al. 1990
Storeria sp. Baird and Girard 1853
Holman et al. 1990
Elaphe sp. Wagler 1833
Holman et al. 1990
Elaphe vulpina (Baird and Girard 1853)
Holman et al. 1990
Elaphe cf. guttata (Linnaeus 1766)
Holman et al. 1990
Opheodrys aestivus
Holman et al. 1990
Coluber constrictor Linnaeus 1758
Holman et al. 1990
Lampropeltis getulus (Linnaeus 1766)
Holman et al. 1990
Lampropeltis triangulum Lacépède 1788
Holman et al. 1990
subspecies triangulum
Carphophis anoenus
Holman et al. 1990
Heterodon cf. platirhinos
Holman et al. 1990
Thamnophis sp. Fitzinger 1843
Holman et al. 1990
Thamnophis sirtalis Linnaeus
Holman et al. 1990
Nerodia sipeodon
Holman et al. 1990
Reptilia - Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalus horridus Linnaeus 1758
Holman et al. 1990
Mammalia - Rodentia - Cricetidae
Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord 1815)
Martin and Prince 1990
Mammalia - Rodentia - Castoridae
Castoroides sp. Foster 1838
Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp. Brisson 1762
Mammalia - Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus americanus Pallas 1780
Churcher et al. 1989
Mammalia - Carnivora - Mustelidae
Martes pennanti (Erxleben 1777)
recombined as Pekania pennanti
Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae
Canis sp. Linnaeus 1758
Churcher et al. 1989
Mammalia - Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus nasutus (Leidy 1868)
Mammalia - Ungulata - Cervidae
Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus 1758)
see common names

Geography
Country:United States State/province:Alabama County:Colbert
Coordinates: 34.7° North, 87.8° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:34.7° North, 87.8° West
Basis of coordinate:stated in text
Geographic resolution:small collection
Time
Period:Quaternary Epoch:Pleistocene
10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 6
Key time interval:Late/Upper Pleistocene
Age range of interval:0.12600 - 0.01170 m.y. ago
Stratigraphy
Local order:bottom to top
Stratigraphy comments: 25,000 to 11,500 RCYBP
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology: claystone
Includes fossils?Y
Environment:cave
Glacial or sequence phase:interglacial
Taphonomy
Modes of preservation:body
Collection methods and comments
Collection excludes:some genera
Reason for describing collection:general faunal/floral analysis
Taxonomic list comments:U-series dates of 0.115 +/- 0.004 and 0.121 +/- 0.006 Ma (average = 0.118 Ma)
overlies unit D

"22 other small vertebrates" apparently not yet identified
Sangamonian
Metadata
Also known as:ACb-2
Database number:84181
Authorizer:M. Uhen, P. Holroyd, J. Alroy Enterer:M. Uhen, P. Holroyd, J. Alroy
Modifier:M. Uhen Research group:vertebrate
Created:2008-09-23 11:41:26 Last modified:2008-09-29 10:59:34
Access level:the public Released:2008-09-23 11:41:26
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

28175. P. W. Parmalee and R. W. Graham. 2002. Additional records of the giant beaver, Castoroides, from the Mid-South: Alabama, Tennessee, and South Carolina. Smithsonian Contribution to Paleobiology 93:65-71 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]

Secondary references:

29343 J. Alroy. 2009. High-handed opinions on taxonomy and other matters. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
28213 C. S. Churcher, P. W. Parmalee, G. L. Bell and J. P. Lamb. 1989. Caribou from the Late Pleistocene of northwestern Alabama. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67(5):1210-1216 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
28196 J. A. Holman, G. L. Bell, and J. P. Lamb. 1990. A late Pleistocene herpetofauna from Bell Cave, Alabama. The Herpetological Journal 1(11):521-529 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
58398 S. E. Jasinski. 2013. Review of the fossil Trionychidae (Testudines) from Alabama, including the oldest record of trionychid turtles from eastern North America. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 31(2):46-59 [P. Holroyd/P. Holroyd]
2450 R. A. Martin and R. H. Prince. 1990. Variation and evolutionary trends in the dentition of late Pleistocene Microtus pennsylvanicus from three levels in Bell Cave, Alabama. Historical Biology 4:117-129 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]
28198 P. W. Parmalee. 1992. A late Pleistocene avifauna from northwestern Alabama. Science Series, Los Angeles Museum of Natural History, Science, and Art 36:307-318 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]