Clark's Cave (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Bath County, Virginia (38.1° N, 79.7° W: paleocoordinates 38.1° N, 79.7° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

Environment/lithology: cave; unlithified breccia

• organic material between talus blocks

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: original aragonite, original calcite, original phosphate, original chitin, bone collector

Collection methods: bulk, surface (in situ), mechanical, sieve,

Primary reference: J. E. Guilday, P. W. Parmalee, and H. W. Hamilton. 1977. The Clark's Cave bone deposit and the Late Pleistocene paleoecology of the central Appalachian Mountains of Virginia. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 2:1-87 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 103991: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 04.02.2011

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Hubbard and Grady added by Carrie for Bio 334
unclassified
  -
Amphibia
 Salientia - Hylidae
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana sp. Linnaeus 1758 frog
Rana cf. pipiens Schreber 1782 Northern leopard frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo sp. Laurenti 1768 toad
americanus group
 Caudata - Urodela
Plethodontidae indet., "Ambystoma sp." = Amblystoma
Plethodontidae indet. Gray 1850 lungless salamander
or Salamandridae
"Ambystoma sp." = Amblystoma Tschudi 1838 mole salamander
Mammalia
 Theriamorpha - Soricidae
Sorex sp. Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
Sorex cinereus Kerr 1792 cinereus shrew
"Microsorex hoyi" = Sorex hoyi Baird 1858 American pygmy shrew
Sorex dispar Batchelder 1896 long-tailed shrew
Sorex fumeus Miller 1895 smoky shrew
Sorex palustris Richardson 1828 American water shrew
Sorex arcticus Kerr 1792 arctic shrew
Blarina brevicauda Say 1823 northern short-tailed shrew
 Theriamorpha - Talpidae
Parascalops breweri Bachman 1842 hairly-tailed vole
Scalopus aquaticus Linnaeus 1758 eastern mole
Condylura cristata Linnaeus 1758 star-nosed mole
 Carnivora - Canidae
"Canis cf. dirus" = Aenocyon dirus
"Canis cf. dirus" = Aenocyon dirus Leidy 1858 dire wolf
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus americanus Pallas 1780 black bear
 Carnivora - Mephitidae
Mephitis mephitis Schreber 1776 striped skunk
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Martes americana Kerr 1792 American marten
"Mustela frenata" = Neogale frenata Lichtenstein 1831 long-tailed weasel
or erminea
"Mustela vison" = Neogale vison Schreber 1777 mink
Mustela nivalis Linnaeus 1766 least weasel
Mustela erminea Linnaeus 1758 stoat
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon lotor Linnaeus 1758 raccoon
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
cf. Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
Cervus elaphus Linnaeus 1758 red deer
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Lasiurus borealis Muller 1776 hairy-tailed bat
Pipistrellus subflavus Cuvier 1832 eastern pipistrelle bat
Myotis keenii Merriam 1895 vesper bat
Myotis grisescens Howell 1909 gray bat
Myotis lucifugus Le Conte 1831 vesper bat
or sodalis
Eptesicus fuscus Beauvois 1796 big brown bat
Plecotus cf. townsendii Cooper 1837 Townsend's big-eared bat
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Glaucomys sabrinus Shaw 1801 northern flying squirrel
Glaucomys volans Linnaeus 1758 southern flying squirrel
Spermophilus tridecemlineatus Mitchell 1821 thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Tamias sp. Illinger 1811 chipmunk
or Glaucomys
Tamias striatus Linnaeus 1758 eastern chipmunk
Eutamias minimus Bachman 1839 least chipmunk
Marmota monax Linnaeus 1758 groundhog
Sciurus cf. carolinensis Gmelin 1788 eastern gray squirrel
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben 1777 American red squirrel
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Neotoma floridana Ord 1818 eastern woodrat
Synaptomys cooperi Baird 1858 southern bog lemming
"Synaptomys borealis" = Synaptomys (Mictomys) borealis Richardson 1828 northern bog lemming
Clethrionomys gapperi Vigors 1830 southern red-backed vole
Phenacomys intermedius Merriam 1889 western heather vole
Microtus xanthognathus Leach 1815 taiga vole
Microtus chrotorrhinus Miller 1894 rock vole
Microtus pinetorum Le Conte 1830 woodland vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord 1815 meadow vole
Ondatra zibethicus Linnaeus 1766 muskrat
Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner 1843 deer mouse
Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque 1818 white-footed mouse
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Napaeozapus insignis Miller 1891 woodland jumping mouse
Zapus hudsonius Zimmermann 1780 meadow jumping mouse
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
Erethizon dorsatum Linnaeus 1758 North American porcupine
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus americanus Erxleben 1777 snowshoe hare
cf. Sylvilagus transitionalis Bangs 1895 cottontail rabbit
Reptilia
 Squamata - Scincidae
Eumeces cf. laticeps Schneider 1801 Broadhead skink
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalidae indet. Oppel 1811 pit viper
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Sceloporus cf. undulatus Bosc 1802 eastern fence lizard
Aves
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipitridae indet. Viellot 1816 hawk
Accipiter striatus Vieillot 1897 sharp-shinned hawk
Buteo cf. platypterus Vieillot 1823 broad-winged hawk
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco sparverius Linnaeus 1758 American kestrel
 Charadriiformes - Charadriidae
Pluvialis dominica Mueller 1776 American golden plover
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Scolopacidae indet., "Philohela minor" = Scolopax minor, cf. Tringa solitaria, "Capella gallinago" = Gallinago gallinago, "cf. Actitis macularia" = Actitis macularius, cf. Limosa sp.
Scolopacidae indet. Rafinesque 1815 snipe
"Philohela minor" = Scolopax minor Gmelin 1789 American woodcock
cf. Tringa solitaria Wilson 1813 solitary sandpiper
"Capella gallinago" = Gallinago gallinago Linnaeus 1758 common snipe
"cf. Actitis macularia" = Actitis macularius Linnaeus 1766 spotted sandpiper
cf. Limosa sp. Brisson 1760 godwit
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Anatidae indet. Vigors 1825 waterfowl
"cf. Anas discors" = Spatula discors Linnaeus 1766 blue-winged teal
cf. Anas crecca Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian teal
Anas cf. platyrhynchos Linnaeus 1758 mallard
or rubripes
Lophodytes cucullatus Linnaeus 1758 hooded merganser
Mergus sp. Linnaeus 1758 merganser
 Galliformes - Tetraonidae
Tetraonidae indet. Linnaeus 1758 grouse
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
"Lagopus cf. mutus" = Lagopus muta, Bonasa umbellus, Meleagris gallopavo, "cf. Canachites canadensis" = Falcipennis canadensis, "cf. Pedioecetes phasianellus" = Tympanuchus phasianellus
"Lagopus cf. mutus" = Lagopus muta Montin 1781 rock ptarmigan
Bonasa umbellus Linnaeus 1766 ruffed grouse
Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
"cf. Canachites canadensis" = Falcipennis canadensis Linnaeus 1758 spruce grouse
"cf. Pedioecetes phasianellus" = Tympanuchus phasianellus Linnaeus 1758 sharp-tailed grouse
 Galliformes - Odontophoridae
Colinus virginianus Linnaeus 1758 northern bobwhite
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
Podilymbus podiceps Linnaeus 1758 pied-billed grebe
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Asio cf. flammeus Pontoppidan 1763 short-eared owl
or otus
"Otus asio" = Megascops asio Linnaeus 1758 eastern screech-owl
Bubo virginianus Gmelin 1788 great horned owl
Aegolius acadicus Gmelin 1788 northern saw-whet owl
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Ectopistes migratorius Linnaeus 1758 passenger pigeon
 Cuculiformes - Cuculidae
Coccyzus sp. Viellot 1816 cuckoo
 Coraciiformes - Alcedinidae
Megaceryle alcyon Linnaeus 1758 belted kingfisher
 Piciformes - Picidae
Picidae indet. Vigors 1825 woodpecker
"cf. Centurus carolinus" = Melanerpes carolinus Linnaeus 1758 red-bellied woodpecker
Dryocopus pileatus Linnaeus 1758 pileated woodpecker
Colaptes auratus Linnaeus 1758 northern flicker
"Dendrocopos villosus" = Picoides villosus Linnaeus 1766 hairy woodpecker
Sphyrapicus varius Linnaeus 1766 yellow-bellied sapsucker
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallidae indet. Vigors 1825 rail
Porzana carolina Linnaeus 1758 sora
Gallinula chloropus Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian moorhen
cf. Rallus limicola Vieillot 1819 Virginia rail
 Caprimulgiformes - Caprimulgidae
Chordeiles minor Forster 1771 common nighthawk
 Caprimulgiformes - Apodidae
Chaetura pelagica Linnaeus 1758 chimney swift
 Passeriformes - Passerellidae
Junco hyemalis Linnaeus 1758 dark-eyed junco
Pooecetes gramineus Gmelin 1789 vesper sparrow
 Passeriformes - Bombycillidae
Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot 1808 cedar waxwing
 Passeriformes - Paridae
Parus sp., "Parus bicolor" = Baeolophus bicolor
Parus sp. Linnaeus 1758 tit
"Parus bicolor" = Baeolophus bicolor Linnaeus 1766 tufted titmouse
 Passeriformes - Certhiidae
Certhia familiaris Linnaeus 1758 perching bird
 Passeriformes - Icteridae
cf. Dolichonyx oryzivorus Linnaeus 1758 bobolink
cf. Sturnella sp. Vieillot 1816 meadowlark
Agelaius phoeniceus Linnaeus 1766 red-winged blackbird
cf. Icterus spurius Linnaeus 1766 orchard oriole
 Passeriformes - Alaudidae
Eremophila alpestris Linnaeus 1759 horned lark
 Passeriformes - Cardinalidae
Piranga sp. Vielillot 1808 tanager
 Passeriformes - Parulidae
Parulidae indet., Seiurus sp., "cf. Dendroica coronata" = Setophaga coronata
Parulidae indet. Wetmore et al. 1947 perching bird
Seiurus sp. Swainson 1827 ovenbird
"cf. Dendroica coronata" = Setophaga coronata Linnaeus 1766 yellow-rumped warbler
 Passeriformes - Troglodytidae
Cistothorus cf. platensis Latham 1790 sedge wren
 Passeriformes - Motacillidae
cf. Anthus spinoletta Linnaeus 1758 water pipit
 Passeriformes - Mimidae
cf. Toxostoma rufum Linnaeus 1758 brown thrasher
 Passeriformes - Fringillidae
Fringillidae indet. Vigors 1825 finch
Loxia sp. Linnaeus 1758 crossbill
cf. Pinicola enucleator Linnaeus 1758 pine grosbeak
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
Turdus migratorius Linnaeus 1758 American robin
Catharus sp. Bonaparte 1850 thrush
cf. Sialia sialis Linnaeus 1758 eastern bluebird
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
cf. Cyanocitta cristata Linnaeus 1758 blue jay
Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm 1822 American crow
Perisoreus canadensis Linnaeus 1766 Canada jay
 Passeriformes - Tyrannidae
Empidonax sp. Cabanis 1855 flycatcher
 Passeriformes - Sittidae
Sitta cf. canadensis Linnaeus 1766 red-breasted nuthatch
 Passeriformes - Hirundinidae
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot 1816 cliff swallow
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Botaurus lentiginosus Rackett 1813 American bittern
Reptilia
 Testudines - Testudinidae
cf. Testudinidae indet. Batsch 1788 turtle
Actinopteri
 Anguilliformes - Anguillidae
 Esociformes - Esocidae
Esox cf. americanus pike
or niger
 Cypriniformes - Catostomidae
Catostomidae indet. carp-like fish
Catostomus sp. carp-like fish
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Cyprinidae indet. Rafinesque 1815 carp-like fish
 Siluriformes - Ictaluridae
Ictaluridae indet. Gill 1861 catfish
Malacostraca
 Decapoda - Astacidae
Cambarus cf. bartonii freshwater crayfish
Cambarus cf. longulus freshwater crayfish
Insecta
 Diptera - Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae indet. Brauer and von Bergenstamm 1889 blow fly
Sarcophagidae indet.
 Dicondylia -
Coleoptera indet. Linnaeus 1758 beetle
 Coleoptera - Elateridae
Elateridae indet. Leach 1815 click beetle
 Coleoptera - Trogidae
Trox sp. Fabricius 1775 hide beetle
 Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae
Onthophagus sp. Latreille 1802 scarab beetle
Onthophagus cf. janus Panzer 1794 scarab beetle
Canthon sp. Hoffmannsegg 1817 scarab beetle
 Coleoptera - Carabidae
Carabidae indet. Latreille 1802 ground beetle
Dicaelus sp. Bonelli 1813 ground beetle
Galerita cf. bicolor Drury 1770 ground beetle
 Hymenoptera - Vespidae
Vespidae indet. Latreille 1802 wasp
 Hemiptera - Membracidae
Membracidae indet. Rafinesque 1815 treehopper
Bivalvia
 Cardiida - Sphaeriidae
Sphaerium striatinum fingernail clam
Pisidium dubium pea clam
Gastropoda
  -
 Cycloneritida - Helicinidae
 Stylommatophora - Polygyridae
 Stylommatophora - Valloniidae
 Stylommatophora - Gastrocoptidae
 Stylommatophora - Vertiginidae
 Stylommatophora - Strobilopsidae
 Stylommatophora - Helicodiscidae
 Pulmonata - Discidae
Pinopsida
 Pinales - Pinaceae
 Coniferales - Cupressaceae
Thuja occidentalis Linnaeus 1753 cypress
Angiospermae
 Cornales - Nyssaceae
 Fagales - Juglandaceae
Carya sp. Nuttall 1818 hickory
 Fagales - Fagaceae
Quercus sp. Linnaeus 1753 oak
 Rosales - Ulmaceae
 Vitales - Vitaceae
Vitis sp. Linnaeus 1753 grapevine
Moxostoma
  -
Moxostoma sp. Rafinesque 1820