Lufeng (Miocene of China)

Where: Yunnan, China (25.0° N, 102.1° E: paleocoordinates 24.6° N, 101.2° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Turolian (8.7 - 5.3 Ma)

• Quarry sequence is divided into 8 beds (numbered from top), in the Xi River Basin north of Lufeng, China. These unconformably overly Mesozoic sediments. No Formation names are given.

•Han 1985: "Its geological age is Late Miocene, equivalent to the Turolian of European sequence of land mammal ages." Qi 1986: Age "8 Ma or perhaps a bit later"

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fluvial-lacustrine; unlithified, black, sandy lignite and unlithified, calcareous mudstone

• Quarry section at Lufeng is 8 m thick. Detailed microstratigraphy given in Qi 1985 and Badgley et al 1988.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Collection methods: bulk,

Primary reference: G. Qi. 1979. Pliocene mammalian fauna of Lufeng, Yunnan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica (Gujizhui dongwu yu gurenlei) 17(1):14-22 [J. Alroy/S. Kuemmell/S. Kuemmell]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 11798: authorized by Will Clyde, entered by John Finarelli on 10.09.2001, edited by Will Clyde, Susanna Kümmell, Mark Uhen and Hannah O'Regan

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Cyprinus sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 carp-like fish
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
Cuora pitheca n. sp.3
Cuora pitheca n. sp.3 Yeh 1981 Asian box turtle
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Aythya shihuibas n. sp.3 pochard
Anas sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 dabbling duck
 Primates - Pliopithecidae
Laccopithecus robustus8 Wu and Pan 1984 monkey
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
Macaca sp. Lacépède 1799 macaque
 Primates - Hominidae
"Sivapithecus sp." = Sivapithecus3, "Ramapithecus sp." = Sivapithecus3, Lufengpithecus lufengensis1
"Sivapithecus sp." = Sivapithecus3 Pilgrim 1910 ape
"Ramapithecus sp." = Sivapithecus3 Pilgrim 1910 ape
Lufengpithecus lufengensis1 Xu et al. 1978 ape
Given in citation as
 Primates - Sivaladapidae
Sinoadapis carnosus n. gen. n. sp.9 Wu and Pan 1985 primate
Sinoadapis carnosus6 Wu and Pan 1985 primate
 Scandentia - Tupaiidae
Tupaiidae indet.7 Gray 1825 tree shrew
 Rodentia - Muridae
Muridae indet.7 Illiger 1811 mouse
Parapelomys sp. n. sp.7 Jacobs 1978 mouse
? Mus sp.7 Linnaeus 1758 house mouse
Parapodemus sp.7 Schaub 1938 mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Kowalskia sp." = Neocricetodon7, "cf. Kowalskia sp." = Neocricetodon3
"Kowalskia sp." = Neocricetodon7 Schaub 1934 mouse
"cf. Kowalskia sp." = Neocricetodon3 Schaub 1934 mouse
 Rodentia - Spalacidae
"Rhizomyidae indet." = Rhizomyinae1 Miller and Gidley 1918 mouse
 Rodentia -
Typhlomys sp.7 Milne-Edwards 1877 Chinese pygmy dormouse
n. spp.
Platacanthomys sp.7 Blyth 1859 mouse
n. sp.
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
? Forsythia sp.7 Mein 1970 squirrel
Sciurotamias sp.7 Miller 1901 Chinese rock squirrel
cf. Hylopetes sp.7 Thomas 1908 squirrel
Albanensia sp.7 Daxner-Höck and Mein 1975 squirrel
cf. Callosciurus sp.7 Gray 1867 tree squirrel
cf. Dremomys sp.7 Heude 1898 red-cheeked squirrel
cf. Tamiops sp.7 Allen 1906 Asian striped squirrel
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Leptodontomys sp.7 Shotwell 1956 rodent
n. sp.
 Rodentia - Castoridae
cf. Monosaulax sp.7 Stirton 1935 beaver
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix sp.7 Linnaeus 1758 porcupine
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
 Lipotyphla - Erinaceidae
Galerix sp.7 Pomel 1848 hedgehog
? Lanthanotherium sp.7 Filhol 1888 hedgehog
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpidae indet.7 Fischer de Waldheim 1817 mole
 Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
Macrotherium sp.3 Lartet 1837 chalicothere
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Aceratherium sp. Kaup 1834 rhinoceros
Chilotherium sp. Ringström 1924 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp. Brisson 1762 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion cf. nagriensis hipparionine horse
Hipparion sp.3 de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
2 spp.
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae indet.7 Fischer 1814 shrew
Soricinae indet.7 Fischer von Waldheim 1817 red-toothed shrew
Blarinella sp.7 Thomas 1911 Asiatic short-tailed shrew
Anourosorex sp.7 Milne-Edwards 1872 mole shrew
n. sp.
cf. Crocidura sp.7 Wagler 1832 white-toothed shrew
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Myotis sp.7 Kaup 1829 vesper bat
Plecotus sp.7 Geoffroy 1818 vesper bat
Pipistrellus sp.7 Kaup 1829 pipistrelle bat
Eptesicus sp.7 Rafinesque 1820 house bat
Spelled Epthsicus in original
 Chiroptera - Hipposideridae
Hipposideridae indet.7 Lydekker 1891 leaf-nosed bat
 Chiroptera - Pteropidae
Pteropidae indet.7 Gray 1821 fruit bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursinae indet.3 Swainson 1835 bear
Indarctos sp.4 Pilgrim 1913 bear
"Indarctos sinensis" = Indarctos atticus4 Weithofer 1888 bear
 Carnivora - Ailuridae
Protursus sp.4 Crusafont and Kurtén 1976 red panda
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustelidae indet.4 Fischer 1817 mustelid carnivore
Eomellivora cf. wimani4 Zdansky 1924 ratel
Lutrinae indet.4 Baird 1857 otter
Lutra sp.4 Brisson 1762 otter
Martes cf. paleosinensis4 marten
spelled Martes palaeosinensis in original
Martes sp.4 Frisch 1775 marten
Proputorius lufengensis4 mustelid carnivore
Proputorius sp.3 Filhol 1890 mustelid carnivore
Sivaonyx bathygnathus4 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Felidae
Metailurus sp.6 Zdansky 1924 cat
Felis sp.4 Linnaeus 1758 cat
 Carnivora - Viverridae
? Viverridae indet.4 Gray 1821 civet
Paradoxurinae indet.4 Gray 1864 civet
Viverrinae indet.4 Gray 1821 civet
2 spp.
Viverra sp.4 Linnaeus 1758 civet
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Ictitherium sp.4 Wagner 1848 hyaena
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Tetralophodon cf. exoletus1, "Gomphotherium sp." = Gomphotherium3, "? Serridentinus sp." = Gomphotherium
"Gomphotherium sp." = Gomphotherium3 Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
"? Serridentinus sp." = Gomphotherium Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Zygolophodon lufengensis n. sp.3 mastodon
 Ungulata - Suidae
Suidae indet.2 Gray 1821 pig
Hyotherium sp.2 von Meyer 1834 pig
Hyotherium cf. palaeochoerus2 pig
Qi 1985: cf. Hyotherium palaeochoerus
Potamochoerus spp.2 Gray 1854 pig
3 unnamed species identified
 Ungulata - Tragulidae
Dorcatherium sp.3 Kaup 1839 chevrotain
n. sp.
Dorcatherium minus Lydekker 1876 chevrotain
Yunnanotherium simplex1 Han 1986 chevrotain
 Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
Palaeomeryx sp. von Meyer 1834 ruminant
 Ungulata - Lagomerycidae
Dicrocerus sp.2 Lartet 1837 ruminant
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovidae indet.2 Gray 1821 antelope
Selenoportax sp.2 Pilgrim 1937 antelope
Antilospira sp. Teilhard de Jardin and Young 1931 antelope
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervidae indet.2 Gray 1821 deer
2 spp.
Muntiacus sp.2 Rafinesque 1815 muntjak
3 spp, n. sp.
Metacervulus sp.2 Teilhard de Jardin and Trassaert 1937 deer
2 unnamed species identified , n. sp.
 Ungulata - Moschidae
Moschus sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 musk deer
  - Zygnemataceae
Spirogyra sp.1 Link 1820
 Pinales - Pinaceae
Pinus sp.1 Linnaeus 1753 pine
Picea sp.1 Link 1827 spruce
 Cycadales - Cycadaceae
Cycas sp.1 Linnaeus 1753 cycads
Pteridophyta indet.1 Haeckel 1875
fern spores
 Apiales - Umbelliferae
Umbelliferae indet.1 de Jussieu
 Sapindales - Anacardiaceae
Rhus sp.1 Linnaeus 1753 sumac
 Fagales - Betulaceae
Betula sp.1 Linnaeus 1753 birch
 Fagales - Fagaceae
Quercus sp.1 Linnaeus 1753
Castanopsis sp.1 Spach 1842