Sand pit at Maurerkopf hill near Edelbeuren (Miocene of Germany)

Where: Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany (48.1° N, 10.0° E: paleocoordinates 48.4° N, 8.6° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Upper Freshwater Molasse Formation (Molasse Group), MN 5 (16.0 - 13.7 Ma)

• Middle Miocene, mammal zone MN 5, latest Orleanien (Sach, 2010)

•there are several fossiliferous horizons which occupy a relatively narrow stratigraphic interval of about 4 m (Sach, 2010)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lacustrine - small; poorly lithified, fine-grained, micaceous, quartzose sandstone

• “Insgesamt kann der ehemalige Lebensraum an der Fundstelle am besten rekonstruiert werden als zeitweise durchströmtes Stillgewässer in einer dynamischen Flusslandschaft” [In summary, the ancient environment in the locality can be best interpreted as a temporarily fluvially affected body of standing water within a dynamic river plain] (Sach, 2010).

•The depth of the small lake is said to have been about 4 m (Sach, 2010).

• “Die heute aufgelassene Sandgrube am Maurerkopf bei Edelbeuren (Landkreis Biberach/Riss) erschließt eine Sedimentabfolge der Oberen Süßwassermolasse mit feinkörnigen, schräggeschichteten Quarzglimmersanden in Wechsellagerung mit Ton- und Mergeleinschaltungen sowie fossilführenden Aufarbeitungslagen. Das in der Grube anstehende Feinsediment (‚Pfohsande‘) ist stark verdichtet, sehr standfest und bildet deshalb eine nahezu senkrechte Grubenwand. Durch Kalk verfestigte Sandpartien wittern bankartig aus der Wand heraus” [The abandoned sand pit at the Maurerkopf hill near Edelbeuren (Biberach/Riss county) exposes a sedimentary succession of the Upper Freshwater Molasse with fine-grained, cross-bedded quartzose and micaceous sands intercalated by clay and marl beds as well as fossiliferous beds with pieces of reworked sedimentary rocks. The exposed fines (locally called ‘Pfohsande’) are strongly compacted and very firm and thus form an almost vertical pit wall. Intervals which are cemented by calcium carbonate are weathering out of the pit wall as thick beds] (Sach, 2010).

•Die Grundmasse der Aufarbeitungslagen besteht aus muskovitreichem Feinsand und kleinen Sandsteinkonkretionen, in die Ton- und Mergelgerölle (Durchschnittsgröße 1-5 Zentimeter, Einzelstücke bis etwa 15 Zentimeter) sowie vereinzelte Fossilreste eingelagert sind. Bei den aufgefundenen Fossilien handelt es sich zumeist um verkieselte Holzreste, Schneckengehäuse, Bruchstücke von Muschelschalen oder um Reste von Wirbeltieren” [The matrix of the fossiliferous beds consists of muscovite-rich fine sand and small sandstone concretions that contain clay and marl pebbles (mean size 1-5 cm, maximum 15 cm) and, sporadicly, fossils. The fossils encountered are mainly silicified wood, gastropod shells, bivalve debris or vertebrate remains] (Sach, 2010).

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Collected by V. Sach in 1987 and later; reposited in the SMNS

Collection methods: surface (in situ), sieve,

• Because the abandoned sand pit is in a natural reserve, collecting mainly was restricted to specimens that were weathering out of the pit wall. Only in 1996 some samples were recovered for screenwashing (Sach, 2010).

Primary reference: V. Sach. 2010. Einmal Miozän und zurück – Zeitreise am Maurerkopf bei Edelbeuren. Oberschwaben Naturnah 2010:41-45 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 175727: authorized by Johannes Mueller, entered by Torsten Liebrecht on 06.01.2016

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Very abundant are teeth and jaws of cricetids (more than 50% of the small mammal material). Among the large mammals the most abundant taxa are rhinocerotids, Procervulus and Dorcatherium (Sach, 2010).
unclassified
  -
Malacostraca
 Decapoda - Potamidae
Potamon sp. Savigny 1816 crab
Ostracoda
 Podocopida - Cyprididae
Bivalvia
 Unionida - Unionidae
Unionidae sp. Rafinesque 1820 freshwater mussel
"Unio vel Margaritifera sp."
Gastropoda
 Littorinoidea - Pomatiasidae
Tudorella conica periwinkle
 Rissooidea - Bithyniidae
Bithynia sp. Leach 1818 snail
 Pulmonata - Clausiliidae
Clausiliidae indet. Gray 1855 slug
 Helicoidea - Helicidae
"Cepaea silvana" = Megalotachea silvana
"Cepaea silvana" = Megalotachea silvana Klein 1853 slug
 Limacoidea - Limacidae
Limax sp. Linnaeus 1758 slug
 Basommatophora - Planorbidae
Planorbarius cornu Brongniart 1810 pulmonate
 Basommatophora - Lymnaeidae
Lymnaea dilatata Noulet 1854 pulmonate
Actinopteri
 Teleostei -
Teleostei indet. Müller 1846
 Anabantiformes - Channidae
Channidae indet. Berg 1940 snakehead
 Acanthomorphata - Moronidae
? Moronidae indet. temperate bass
"Percoidei indet. (?Wolfsbarsch)"
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Palaeoleuciscus sp. Obrhelová 1969 carp-like fish
Palaeocarassius sp. Obrhelová 1970 carp-like fish
Osteichthyes
 Salientia -
Latonia gigantea Lartet 1851 frog
 Caudata - Urodela
Mioproteus caucasicus Estes and Darevsky 1978 mudpuppy
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionyx sp. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Geochelone sp. Fitzinger 1835 turtle
Testudo sp. Linnaeus 1758 turtle
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
Ptychogaster sp. Pomel 1847 turtle
Mauremys sp. Gray 1870 pond turtle
Aves
 Aves -
Reptilia
 Crocodylia -
Diplocynodon sp. Pomel 1847 crocodilian
 Squamata - Lacertidae
Lacerta sp. Linnaeus 1758 squamates
 Squamata - Anguidae
Anguidae indet. Gray 1825 squamates
 Squamata -
Serpentes indet. Linnaeus 1758 snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Vipera sp. Laurenti 1768 pit viper
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Eumyarion medius Lartet 1851 mouse
Cricetodon meini Freudenthal 1963 mouse
Megacricetodon minor Lartet 1851 mouse
Megacricetodon lappi Mein 1958 mouse
Democricetodon mutilus Fahlbusch 1964 mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciuridae indet. Gray 1821 squirrel
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Miodyromys aegercii Baudelot 1972 dormouse
Paraglirulus werenfelsi Engesser 1972 dormouse
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Keramidomys thaleri Hugueney and Mein 1968 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Prolagus oeningensis König 1825 pika
 Lipotyphla - Erinaceidae
Erinaceinae sp. Fischer de Waldheim 1817 hedgehog
"Mioechinus vel Amphechinus sp."
Galerix symeonidisi Doukas 1986 hedgehog
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpidae indet. Fischer de Waldheim 1817 mole
 Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinocerotidae indet. Gray 1821 rhinoceros
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae indet. Fischer 1814 shrew
Miosorex sp. Kretzoi 1959 shrew
 Tribosphenida - Dimylidae
Plesiodimylus sp. Gaillard 1897 placental
 Ferae -
Carnivora sp. Bowditch 1821 carnivoran
"Mustelidae vel Viverridae indet."
Carnivora indet. Bowditch 1821 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Trocharion albanense Forsyth-Major 1903 mustelid carnivore
Proputorius sansaniensis mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Viverridae
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Gomphotherium angustidens Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
 Ungulata - Suidae
Hyotherium soemmeringi von Meyer 1834 pig
 Ungulata - Cainotheriidae
Cainotherium huerzeleri Heizmann 1983 even-toed ungulate
 Ungulata - Tragulidae
Dorcatherium guntianum von Meyer 1846 chevrotain
 Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
Palaeomeryx sp. von Meyer 1834 ruminant
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Charophyceae
 Charales - Characeae
Chara sp. Linnaeus 1753 stonewort
Dicotyledonae
 Urticales - Dilleniidae
Celtis sp. Linnaeus 1753 hackberry