Withlacoochee River Site 4A (Neogene of the United States)

Where: Marion County, Florida (28.8° N, 82.3° W: paleocoordinates 29.0° N, 80.7° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Hemphillian (10.3 - 4.9 Ma)

• said to be early Hemphillian

•sinkhole is "developed in the Inglis member of the Ocala Limestone (Late Eocene)" (Becker 1985)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: pond; fine-grained, green, silty claystone

• "a pond environment" but there "is some [faunal] evidence for marine or estuarine influence" (Becker 1985) or "a freshwater pond or oxbow lake cut" (Webb 2008)
• "fine green clays, with some evidence of layering or varving" that fill "a sinkhole" (Becker 1985) or "massive green clays and occasionally concentrated in thin beds of silt"

Size class: macrofossils

Reposited in the FLMNH

• Eocene, Hemphillian, and Rancholabrean fossils are all present but easily distinguished based on preservation and color

Primary reference: J. J. Becker. 1985. Fossil herons (Aves: Ardeidae) of the late Miocene and early Pliocene of Florida. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 5(1):24-31 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 18601: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Richard Hulbert, Jonathan Marcot and Patricia Holroyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Site 4A is in Marion Co., site 4X in Citrus Co.: Webb 1989
 Carangiformes - Carangidae
Carangidae indet. Rafinesque 1815
 Acanthomorphata - Centropomidae
Centropomus sp. Lacépède 1802
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Pogonias cromis Cope 1869 black drum
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana sp. Linnaeus 1758 frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo sp. Laurenti 1768 toad
 Caudata - Urodela
Amphiuma sp. Garden 1821 amphiuma
Notophthalmus sp. Rafinesque 1820 newt
Siren sp. Linnaeus 1766 siren
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet.2 Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Kinosternon sp.4 von Spix 1824 mud turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Hesperotestudo sp.4 Williams 1950 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Trachemys scripta4 Schoepff 1792 slider
Terrapene sp. Merrem 1820 box turtle
Pseudemys sp. Gray 1856 cooter
"concinna or williamsi"
Pseudemys ? nelsoni Carr 1938 Florida red-bellied turtle
"Trachemys inflata" = Chrysemys inflata4 Weaver and Robertson 1967 turtle
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Egretta subfluvia n. sp. Becker 1985 egret
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Buteo sp. de Lacepède 1799 hawk
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator mississippiensis Daudin 1801 American alligator
 Squamata - Viperidae
Viperidae indet. Oppel 1811 viper
 Squamata - Colubridae
Natricinae indet. Bonaparte 1838 colubrid snake
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Cricetidae indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1817 mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciuridae indet. Gray 1821 squirrel
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
? Pratilepus sp. Hibbard 1939 rabbit
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras sp. Hatcher 1894 rhinoceros
Aphelops mutilus Matthew 1924 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp.5 Brisson 1762 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Hippotherium ingenuum" = Cormohipparion ingenuum1 Leidy 1885 hipparionine horse
Pseudhipparion skinneri7 Webb and Hulbert 1986 hipparionine horse
Nannippus aztecus1 Mooser 1968 hipparionine horse
Nannippus morgani7 Hulbert 1993 hipparionine horse
Nannippus sp. "3" of Hulbert 1988c
Neohipparion eurystyle Cope 1893 hipparionine horse
Hipparion cf. tehonense Merriam 1916 hipparionine horse
Protohippus cf. gidleyi6 Hulbert 1988 horse
includes specimen inexplicably assigned to "Pliohippus" by MacFadden and Cerling 1996
Calippus maccartyi6 Hulbert 1988 horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Indarctos sp. Pilgrim 1913 bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Enhydritherium terraenovae3 Berta and Morgan 1985 badger
 Carnivora - Canidae
Urocyon webbi n. sp.9 Tedford et al. 2009 gray fox
Borophagus orc1 Webb 1969 bone-crushing dog
Borophagus pugnator10 Cook 1922 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Machairodus sp. Kaup 1833 cat
 Xenarthra - Megalonychidae
Pliometanastes protistus Hirschfeld and Webb 1968 edentate
 Xenarthra - Mylodontidae
Thinobadistes wetzeli n. sp.11 Webb 1989 edentate
from "Site 4X" and referred specimens from "Site 4A"; "T. segnis"
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Platybelodon sp.8 Borissiak 1928 gomphothere
presumably "Torynobelodon sp."; identification is uncertain according to Lambert 1996
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Tayassuinae indet.1 Palmer 1897 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Procamelus cf. grandis Gregory 1939 camel
Aepycamelus cf. major Leidy 1886 camel
 Ungulata - Gelocidae
Floridameryx floridanus n. gen. n. sp.12
Floridameryx floridanus n. gen. n. sp.12 Webb 2008 ruminant
said to be new
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Hexameryx simpsoni White 1941 pronghorn