Bridge Ranch, Normanna (Miocene of the United States)

Also known as Lapara Creek fauna; Site 17; Bridge Estate; TMM 31132, WPA, Work Project No. 12510

Where: Bee County, Texas (28.6° N, 97.7° W: paleocoordinates 29.0° N, 95.3° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Lapara Member (Goliad Formation), Clarendonian (13.6 - 10.3 Ma)

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; massive sandstone and yellow, calcareous claystone

• "interbedded heavy cross-bedded sands and buff calcareous clays"

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by WPA in 1941; reposited in the TMM

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

Primary reference: E. H. Sellards. 1941. Final report covering the period from March 4, 1939 ro September 30, 1941 for the state-wide paleontologic-mineralogic survey in Texas. A Federal Works Agency Work Projects Administration Project iii-85 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 18610: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 27.09.1993, edited by Jonathan Marcot, Evangelos Vlachos and Matthew Carrano

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• apparently lower than TMM 30896 and TMM 31081 as 1) it is said to be "older" by Tedford et al. 1987, and 2) the latter faunas are said to be near the top of the member
any Teleoceras is T. cf. major: Prothero and Manning 1987
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus sp.6 Agassiz 1843 gar
TMM 31132-457
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Apalone sp.6 Rafinesque 1832 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Hesperotestudo sp.6 Williams 1950 turtle
TMM 31132-82 dermal ossicle, -460 humerus, -770 carapace and plastron fragments
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Emydidae indet.6 Rafinesque 1815 turtle
TMM 31132-774 plastron fragments
cf. Terrapene sp.6 Merrem 1820 box turtle
TMM 31132-811, carapace fragment
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
cf. Mycteria sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 stork
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator cf. mississippiensis6 Daudin 1801 American alligator
 Rodentia - Mylagaulidae
"Ceratogaulus cf. rhinoceros" = Ceratogaulus rhinocerus6
"Ceratogaulus cf. rhinoceros" = Ceratogaulus rhinocerus6 Matthew 1902 rodent
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
cf. Domninoides sp.6 Green 1956 mole
TMM 31132-531 partial left humerus
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras major8 Hatcher 1894 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Merychippus sp. Leidy 1856 horse
Hippotherium sp.1 Kaup 1832 hipparionine horse
Pseudhipparion curtivallum11 Quinn 1955 hipparionine horse
Nannippus cf. ingenuum5 hipparionine horse
Neohipparion affine3 Leidy 1869 hipparionine horse
Hipparion tehonense6 Merriam 1916 hipparionine horse
TMM 31132-22 M1, -731 M
Dinohippus subvenus n. sp.9 Quinn 1955 horse
Pliohippus sp. Marsh 1874 horse
Protohippus supremus1 Leidy 1869 horse
Calippus martini4 Hesse 1936 horse
Calippus regulus2 Johnston 1937 horse
Calippus placidus4 Leidy 1869 horse
Hypohippus affinis2 Leidy 1858 anchitheriine horse
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Amphicyoninae indet.12 Trouessart 1885 bear-dog
Ischyrocyon gidleyi6 Matthew 1902 bear-dog
TMM 31132-29 M2, -259 M1, -328 M2, -412 P4
 Carnivora - Canidae
Aelurodon taxoides6 Hatcher 1894 bone-crushing dog
TMM 31132-12 canine, -165 canine, -458 left dentary with c, p2-4, m1-2, -478 incisor, -787 canine
Aelurodon taxoides12 Hatcher 1894 bone-crushing dog
confirmed by Wang et al. 1999
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
cf. Gomphotherium sp.6 Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Protolabis coartatus1 Stirton 1929 camel
Megatylopus sp. Matthew and Cook 1909 camel
Procamelus occidentalis7 Leidy 1858 camel
 Ungulata - Protoceratidae
Protoceratinae indet.10 protoceratid
Synthetoceras tricornatus7 Stirton 1932 protoceratid
 Ungulata - Gelocidae
Pseudoceras skinneri6 Frick 1937 ruminant
TMM 31132-4 partial dentary with dp4, -331 partial left dentary with m2-m3
 Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
Cranioceras teres6 Cope 1874 ruminant
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Ramoceros ramosus6 Cope 1874 pronghorn