Eohalysiocrinus stigmatus-Sievertsia Assoc., Vail Stone Quarry (Silurian of the United States)

Where: Indiana (39.5° N, 85.5° W: paleocoordinates 27.6° S, 51.5° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Laurel Formation, Wenlock (433.4 - 427.4 Ma)

• "Formational assignment of the strat with this community is somewhat problematic. At most outcrops, the Laurel-Waldron contact is abrupt and has low relief, even though in many places it is a hardground. At Sandusky and elsewhere it is more gradiational. The unit was termed the 'transitional beds' by Frest (1977) and assigned, somewhat arbitrarily, to the Laurel because of the mixed fauna and predominantly carbonate lithology."

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: deep subtidal; shelly/skeletal grainstone and shelly/skeletal packstone

• "...most intact cups are those of resistant taxa...holdfasts and root systems common...This environment was evidently fairly frequently subject to wave winnowing, and hence likely occurred above mean storm wave base. Excellent and unbroken preservation of many echinoderm calices and brachiopods preculdes the presence of regular currents. The moderate diversity of both echinoderms and brachiopods is suggestive of BA 3. A. Boucot...states that the brachiopod assemblage most strongly suggests outer BA 3; this is consistent with the sizable blastozoan representation as well."

•SEP environmental call based on given information and knowledge of regional geology

• "Abundantly fossiliferous. The most common lithology is whole fossils or large-clast grainstone, but packstone textures are almost equally common. Individual beds generally do not exceed 3 cm...Many are strongly graded, with fines generally on the upper surfaces. Some debris layers have fines winnowed out although they are otherwise poorly sorted. Large-debris lenses are common, but these rarely persist laterally for more than 2 m...."

Collection methods: Taxa listed with abundances in table 45.35. Three taxa, mentioned in text but not listed in table, have been added.

Primary reference: T. J. Frest, C. E. Brett, and B. J. Witzke. 1999. Caradocian-Gedinnian echinoderm associations of Central and Eastern North America. Paleocommunities--a case study from the Silurian and Lower Devonian 638-783 [M. Foote/K. Koverman/P. Wagner]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 26778: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 31.10.2002

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Corynexochida - Styginidae
Styginidae indet. Vogdes 1890 trilobite
 Phacopida - Calymenidae
Calymene niagarensis Hall 1843 trilobite
 Lichida - Lichidae
Arctinurus sp. Castelnau 1843 trilobite
Ostracoda indet. Latreille 1802 ostracod
 Orthotetida - Triplesiidae
 Orthotetida - Chilidiopsidae
"Coolinia subplana" = Fardenia (Coolinia)
"Coolinia subplana" = Fardenia (Coolinia)
 Strophomenida - Leptestiidae
Leangella sp. Opik 1933
 Strophomenida - Rafinesquinidae
Leptaena rhomboidalis Wahlenberg 1818
 Dictyonellida - Eichwaldiidae
 Athyridida - Meristidae
Merista sp. Suess 1851
 Athyridida - Meristellidae
 Athyridida - Nucleospiridae
 Spiriferida - Cyrtiidae
 Spiriferida - Delthyrididae
Howellella "crispa" Hisinger 1827
 Pentamerida - Parastrophinidae
 Atrypida - Atrypidae
Atrypa "reticularis" Linnaeus 1758
 Atrypida - Atrypinidae
 Rhynchonellida - Trigonirhynchiidae
 Rhynchonellida - Rhynchotrematidae
 Rhynchonellida - Hebetoechiidae
 Orthida - Rhipidomellidae
Dalejina "hybrida" Sowerby 1839
 Orthida - Dalmanellidae
Isorthis sp. Kozlowski 1929
 Orthida - Hesperorthidae
? Dolerorthis sp. Schuchert and Cooper 1931
 Sabellida - Serpulidae
Spirorbis spp. Daudin 1800
 Mimospirida - Clisospiridae
 Modiomorphida - Modiomorphidae
Modiolopsis sp. Hall 1847 clam
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
Nuculanidae indet. Adams and Adams 1858 pointed nut clam
Gastropoda "indet. 1" Cuvier 1797 snail
Gastropoda "indet. 2" Cuvier 1797 snail
Gastropoda "indet. 3" Cuvier 1797 snail
 Euomphalina - Platyceratidae
"Naticonema niagarensis" = Platyostoma niagarensis Hall 1852 snail
 Bellerophontida -
"Bellerophontacea indet." = Bellerophontoidea
"Bellerophontacea indet." = Bellerophontoidea M'Coy 1851 snail
 Bellerophontida - Bellerophontidae
Liljevallospira sp., ""Bellerophon" tuber" = Sphaerocyclus tuber
Liljevallospira sp. Knight 1945 snail
""Bellerophon" tuber" = Sphaerocyclus tuber Hall 1879 snail
 Neritoidea - Naticopsidae
"Naticonema plebium" = Naticopsis plebeia
"Naticonema plebium" = Naticopsis plebeia Perner 1903 snail
 Murchisoniina - Eotomariidae
Eotomariidae indet. Wenz 1938 snail
 Murchisoniina - Loxonematidae
Loxonema sp. Phillips 1841 snail
 Cornulitida - Cornulitidae
 Cyrtonellida - Cyrtolitidae
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
 Trepostomata - Monticuliporidae
Prasopora sp. Nicholson and Etheridge 1877
  - Cyclocystoididae
Sievertsia sp. Smith and Paul 1982
Polytryphocycloides sp. Smith and Paul 1982
Ophiuroidea indet. Gray 1840 brittle star
Asteroidea indet. de Blainville 1830 sea star
"starfish plates"
 Glyptocystitoida - Callocystitidae
 Fissiculata - Phaenoschismatidae
 Disparida -
Disparida indet. Sea lily
"disparid gen. nov. Sevastopulo and Lane"
 Calceocrinida - Calceocrinidae
Calceocrinidae indet. Meek and Worthen 1869 Sea lily
"new calceocrinid"
 Homocrinida - Homocrinidae
Homocrinus sp. Hall 1852 Sea lily
 Disparida -
"Phimocrinus" sp. Schultze 1867 Sea lily
 Flexibilia -
 Sagenocrinida - Lecanocrinidae
 Cladida -
Amphipsalidocrinus sp. Weller 1930 Sea lily
 Cladida - Botryocrinidae
 Cyathocrinida - Thalamocrinidae
Thalamocrinus sp. Miller and Gurley 1895 Sea lily
 Cyathocrinida - Cyathocrinitidae
 Monobathrida -
 Monobathrida - Eucalyptocrinitidae
 Monobathrida - Patelliocrinidae
 Diplobathrida -
 Diplobathrida - Dimerocrinitidae
 Diplobathrida -
Cyphocrinus sp. Miller 1892 Sea lily
 Lithistida - Astylospongiidae
Astylospongia praemorsa Goldfuss 1826 demosponge
Anthozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1834
"solitary corals"
 Auloporida - Auloporidae
Auloporella sp. Grubbs 1939 tabulate coral
 Favositida - Favositidae
Favosites spinigerus tabulate coral
Favosites forbesi tabulate coral
Favosites "sp. 2" Lamarck 1816 tabulate coral