Liventsovka (Pliocene of Russian Federation)

Also known as Liventsovka, Khapry Formation, Sea of Azov Liventzovka

Where: Rostovskaya Oblast', Russian Federation (47.2° N, 39.7° E: paleocoordinates 47.4° N, 39.4° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Khapry Formation, Pliocene (5.3 - 2.6 Ma)

• Late Pliocene, Middle Villafranchian, lower part of MN17 (based on small mammals associated with macrofauna in the lowest levels).

•Bones largely found in the lower part of the alluvial sequence, but some isolated specimens occur higher in the sequence at Liventsovka. Several beds with small mammals occur within the 20m thick sequence.

•Liventsovka was a quarry.

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fluvial-deltaic

• Sand-shingle deposits along the coastal zone of the Sea of Azov. 'They unconformably overlie the marine Miocene sediments and correspond to alluvium of an ancient 30-40m terrace of the Don River.'
• Sand-shingle deposits.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: Collecting began in 1932, from a quarry.

•Specimens held at Rostov State University, Rostov-on-Don (RGU), Vernadskii State Geological Museum (GGM), Rostov Regional Museum (RRM) and the Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (GIN).

•bpnes are 'strongly mineralised'.

Primary reference: V. S. Baigusheva. 1971. Fossil Teriofauna of the Liventzovka sand-pit. Materialy po faunam Antropogena SSSR 49:5-29 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/S. Bruning]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 39409: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 28.05.2004, edited by John Alroy

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• small from of Libralces.
 Testudines - Emydidae
Emydinae indet.1 Rafinesque 1815 turtle
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Cygnus sp. Garsault 1764 swan
 Struthioniformes - Struthionidae
Struthio sp. Linnaeus 1758 ostrich
 Squamata - Lacertidae
? Lacertidae indet. Bonaparte 1831 squamates
 Rodentia - Dipodidae
Allactaga sp. Cuvier 1836 jerboa
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
 Rodentia - Muridae
Spalax sp. G├╝ldenstadt 1770 blind mole
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Trogontherium cuvieri Owen 1846 beaver
Castor sp. Linnaeus 1758 beaver
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Alilepus sp. Dice 1931 rabbit
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis cf. senezensis4 Martin 1971 canine
Nyctereutes megamastoides Pomel 1842 raccoon dog
1 left ramus with P4-M2 and I1-P3 and M3 alveoli. (GIN 302/1).
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felidae indet. Gray 1821 cat
Homotherium crenatidens4 Fabrini 1890 cat
Acinonyx pardinensis4 Croizet and Jobert 1828 cheetah
1 partial distal humerus, (RSU-97).
Lynx issiodorensis4 Croizet and Jobert 1828 lynx
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Pliocrocuta perrieri4 Kretzoi 1938 hyaena
Pachycrocuta brevirostris4 Gervais 1850 brown hyaena
1 left mandible, incisors and Ci missing, all other teeth present. (RSU-231).
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus cf. etruscus Cuvier 1823 bear
these specimens are now missing.
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustelidae indet. Fischer 1817 mustelid carnivore
Pannonictis nestii4 Martelli 1906 mustelid carnivore
Lutra sp. Brisson 1762 otter
1 partial left mandible with roots of M1 and M2, (RSU-1350).
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus cf. etruscus3 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
Elasmotherium caucasicum Borissiak 1914 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Equus cf. stenonis" = Allohippus stenonis Cocchi 1867 horse
Hipparion sp. de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Libralces gallicus2 Azzaroli 1952 deer
"Cervus (Rusa) sp." = Rusa Smith 1827 deer
Cervus cf. elaphus Linnaeus 1758 red deer
"Cervus cf. philisi" = Metacervocerus philisi Mennecart et al. 2017 deer
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
? Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
Gazella sp. Blaineville 1816 gazelle
Bison sp. Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
 Artiodactyla - Camelidae
Paracamelus gigas Schlosser 1903 camel
Paracamelus alutensis Stefanescu 1895 camel
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
 Theriamorpha - Talpidae
Talpa sp. Linnaeus 1758 mole
Desmana sp. Guldenstaedt 1777 Russian desman
 Theriamorpha - Soricidae
Soricidae indet. Fischer 1814 shrew
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Anancus alexeevae n. sp. gomphothere
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
"Archidiskodon gromovi" = Mammuthus
"Archidiskodon gromovi" = Mammuthus mammoth
 Siluriformes - Siluridae
Silurus sp. Linnaeus 1758 catfish
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Rutilus rutilus carp-like fish
 Esociformes - Esocidae
Esox sp. Linnaeus 1758 pike
 Perciformes - Percidae
Lucioperca lucioperca Linnaeus 1758 perch
 Acipenseriformes - Acipenseridae
Acipenser sp. Linnaeus 1758 sturgeon