Haystack Cave (Lower Levels 4-8) (Pleistocene of the United States)

Also known as 5GN 189

Where: Gunnison County, Colorado (38.5° N, 107.2° W: paleocoordinates 38.5° N, 107.2° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• "Two carbon 14 dates... based on bone apatite of unidentifiable fragments from levels 3 and 4 and 5 and 6. The sample from levels 3 and 4" was "dated as 14,935 +/- 610 B.P.; the sample from levels 5 and 6... was less accurate... and dated as 12,154 +/- 1,700 B.P. Both dates are corrected and indicate deposition of levels 3-6 during the late Pleistocene."

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: cave; brown, conglomeratic siltstone

• "a small volcanic lava tube... All sediments in the cave appear to be the result of wind deposition and erosion of the cave interior."
• "The lower cave matrix (levels 4-8) consists of a continuous light brown soil with some roof spalls."

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: bone collector, midden

Collected by National Park Service in 1978

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, sieve,

• "matrix was screened through one-quarter-inch screen"

Primary reference: S. D. Emslie. 1986. Late Pleistocene vertebrates from Gunnison County, Colorado. Journal of Paleontology 60(1):170-176 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 74954: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 07.09.2007

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo sp. Laurenti 1768 toad
"Bufo boreas or B. woodhousei"
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Lagopus sp. Brisson 1760 ptarmigan
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
Sialia sp. Swainson 1827 bluebird
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Buteo sp. de Lacep├Ęde 1799 hawk
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Neotoma sp. Say and Ord 1825 pack rat
"Neotoma cinerea or N. mexicana"
Neotoma cinerea Ord 1815 bushy-tailed woodrat
Phenacomys intermedius Merriam 1889 western heather vole
Microtus sp. Schrank 1798 vole
Microtus longicaudus Merriam 1888 long-tailed vole
"Lagurus curtatus" = Lemmiscus curtatus Cope 1868 sagebrush vole
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Spermophilus richardsonii Sabine 1822 ground squirrel
Marmota flaviventris Audubon and Bachman 1841 yellow-bellied marmot
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Thomomys sp. Wied-Neuwied 1839 pocket gopher
Thomomys talpoides Richardson 1828 northern pocket gopher
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
Sylvilagus sp. Gray 1867 cottontail rabbit
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotona princeps Richardson 1828 American pika
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp. Linnaeus 1758 horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus americanus Pallas 1780 black bear
 Carnivora - Mephitidae
Spilogale putorius Linnaeus 1758 eastern spotted skunk
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus 1758 red fox
Caninae indet. Gill 1872 canine
"Vulpes sp. or Urocyon sp."
 Carnivora - Felidae
"cf. Acinonyx trumani" = Miracinonyx studeri
"cf. Acinonyx trumani" = Miracinonyx studeri Savage 1960 American cheetah
"cf. Acinonyx (Miracinonyx) trumani"
 Ungulata - Bovidae
"Ovis catclawensis" = Ovis canadensis
"Ovis catclawensis" = Ovis canadensis Shaw 1804 bighorn sheep
"Ovis canadensis catclawensis"
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus hemionus Rafinesque 1817 mule deer
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Antilocapra americana Ord 1815 pronghorn