Zone 4 [Upper Bhuban Fm] (Miocene of India)

Where: India (23.0° N, 93.0° E: paleocoordinates 15.7° N, 94.5° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Upper Bhuban Formation (Surma Group), Early/Lower Miocene (23.0 - 16.0 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From the Upper Bhuban Fm of the Bhuban Subgroup, Surma Group (Early-Middle Miocene), which presumably overlies the Middle Bhuban Fm and overlain by sediments of the Boka Bil Subgroup (Ganju, 1975). THICKNESS: From beds of no more than 5 m thickness within sections of less than 12 m in thickness. AGE: Helvetian, Middle Miocene. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: From base to middle of sections.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: coastal; lithified, silty sandstone and lithified conglomerate

• ENVIRONMENT: Shallow marine, siliciclastic environment.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Silty sandstone, and conglomerate. LITHIFICATION: Lithified, on the basis of figured specimens (casts and molds).

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: cast, mold/impression

Collected by Tiwari; reposited in the GSI

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• COLLECTORS: R. P. Tiwari (unknown date). REPOSITORY: Geological Survey of India (GSI), Pachhunga University College (PUC)

Primary reference: R. P. Tiwari and R. P. Kachhara. 2003. Molluscan biostratigraphy of the Tertiary sediments of Mizoram, India. Journal of the Paleontological Society of India 48:65-88 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 78641: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 12.02.2008

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Exhaustive for gastropoda and bivalvia. NOMENCLATURE: Not an authoritative publication, but with fairly modern nomenclature, subgenus and species resolution assignments
 Decapoda - Xanthidae
Xantho sp. Leach 1804 stone crab
 Decapoda - Leucosiidae
Ebalia spinosa Tiwari et al. 1997 crab
Ebalia tuberculata Noetling 1901 crab
 Arcida - Arcidae
Trisidos sp. Ršding 1798 clam
Arca "sp. 1" Linnaeus 1758 ark
Arca feddeni Vredenburg 1928 ark
Arca newtoni Vredenburg 1928 ark
Anadara sp. Gray 1847 ark
Anadara garoensis Mukerjee 1939 ark
Anadara dichotoma Deshayes 1863 ark
Anadara gourae Dey 1961 ark
Anadara craticulata Nyst 1848 ark
Anadara daviesi Mukerjee 1939 ark
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten (Oopecten) gigas" = Oopecten gigas, Pecten (Pecten) sp., Pecten pilgrimi, Chlamys (Chlamys) quilonensis, "Chlamys (Chlamys) senatoria" = Mimachlamys senatoria
"Pecten (Oopecten) gigas" = Oopecten gigas Schlotheim 1813 scallop
Pecten (Pecten) sp. Müller 1776 scallop
Pecten pilgrimi Cox 1936 scallop
"Chlamys (Chlamys) senatoria" = Mimachlamys senatoria Gmelin 1791 scallop
 Pectinida - Limidae
"Limaria (Limatulella) sp." = Limaria
"Limaria (Limatulella) sp." = Limaria Link 1807 file clam
 Ostreida - Pinnidae
Pinna sp. Linnaeus 1758 oyster
Pinna (Pinna) "sp. 1" Linnaeus 1758 oyster
Pinna (Pinna) "sp. 2" Linnaeus 1758 oyster
 Carditida - Astartidae
Astarte (Bathiamena) sp. Sowerby 1816 clam
Astarte (Grotriana) sp. Sowerby 1816 clam
Astarte (Digitariopsis) sp. Chavan 1952 clam
Astarte (Astarte) "sp. 1" Sowerby 1816 clam
Astarte (Astarte) "sp. 2" Sowerby 1816 clam
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
Salaputium sp. Iredale 1924 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
Carditamera sp. Conrad 1838 clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula (Tunicosulcata) sp. Bruguière 1789 clam
Corbula tunicosulcata Vredenburg 1928 clam
Corbula mekranica Vredenburg 1928 clam
"Corbula harpa" = Corbula (Bicorbula) harpa Archaic and Haime 1854 clam
 Cardiida - Arcticidae
Arctica cf. islandica Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Lutraria "sp. 1" Lamarck 1799 clam
Lutraria "sp. 2" Lamarck 1799 clam
 Cardiida - Ungulinidae
"Diplodonta rotundata" = Diplodonta (Diplodonta) rotundata Montagu 1803 clam
Diplodonta incerta d'Archiac 1850 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Paphia (Callistotapes) pseudoliratus Vredenburg 1928 venus clam
Paphia (Paphia) sp. Röding 1798 venus clam
Paphia (Paphia) persica Cox 1936 venus clam
Dosinia (Dosinia) peralta Vredenburg 1928 venus clam
"Callista (Costacallista) erycina" = Costacallista erycina Linnaeaus 1758 venus clam
Callista sp. Poli 1791 venus clam
Meretrix meretrix venus clam
Meretrix persica Cox 1936 venus clam
Clementia sp. Gray 1847 venus clam
Clementia (Clementia) protopapyracea Vredenburg 1928 venus clam
Clementia (Clementia) papyracea Gray 1825 venus clam
 Cardiida - Solecurtidae
Azorinus sp. Récluz 1869 clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
"Tellina (Angulus) sp." = Angulus Megerle 1811 tellin clam
Apolymetis sp. Salisbury 1929 tellin clam
Tellina (Telliangulus) sp. Linnaeus 1758 tellin clam
Tellina (Eurytellina) pilgrimi Cox 1936 tellin clam
Tellina (Moerella) indifferens Noetling 1901 tellin clam
Tellina (Tellinella) sp. Mörch 1853 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Psammobiidae
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Vepricardium (Hedecardium) sp." = Hedecardium, Cardium sp., Cardium quilonense
"Vepricardium (Hedecardium) sp." = Hedecardium Marwick 1944 cockle
Cardium sp. Linnaeus 1758 cockle
Cardium quilonense Dey 1961 cockle
 Solenida - Solenidae
 Solenida - Pharidae
Cultellus (Cultellus) sp. Schumacher 1817 clam
 Pholadomyida - Pholadomyidae
Pholadomya "sp. 1" Sowerby 1823 clam
Pholadomya "sp. 2" Sowerby 1823 clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Lucina (Lucina) sp. Bruguiére 1797 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
Nucula "sp. 1" Lamarck 1799 nut clam
Nucula "sp. 2" Lamarck 1799 nut clam
Nucula "sp. 3" Lamarck 1799 nut clam
Nucula alcocki Noetling 1895 nut clam
 Protobranchia - Sareptidae
Portlandia sp. Mörch 1857 clam
 Protobranchia - Yoldiidae
Yoldia sp. Möller 1842 clam
Yoldia (Yoldia) sp. Moeller 1842 clam
 Architaenioglossa - Ampullinidae
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva sp. Bruguière 1789 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassaria birmanica Vredenburg 1921 snail
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Volvaria birmanica Noetling 1895 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Murex sp. Linnaeus 1758 murex snail
Murex macgillivrayi Dohrn 1862 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
Clavatula tipperi Cox 1936 turrid
Turris sp. Röding 1798 turrid
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus (Dendroconus) loroisii Kiener 1845 cone shell
Conus (Leptoconus) bonneti Cossmann 1900 cone shell
Conus (Lithoconus) ineditus Michelotti 1861 cone shell
 Ficoidea - Ficidae
Ficus conditus Brongniart 1823 fig shell
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica coxi Mukerjee 1939 moon snail
 Xenophoroidea - Xenophoridae
Xenophora birmanica carrier shell
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
 Tonnoidea - Bursidae
Bursa elegans frog shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
"Turritella (Torculoidella) angulata" = Kapalmerella ranikoti, Turritella narica
"Turritella (Torculoidella) angulata" = Kapalmerella ranikoti Vredenburg 1928 turret shell
Turritella narica Vredenburg 1928 turret shell
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
Architectonica sp., "Architectonica affine" = Architectonica affinis
Architectonica sp. Röding 1798 sundial
"Architectonica affine" = Architectonica affinis Sowerby 1840 sundial
[entered as Architectonica affinis]
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatis sp. Rafinesque 1810 whiptail stingray
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus 1758 great white shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Negaprion sp. Whitley 1940 lemon shark
 Carchariniformes - Sphyrnidae
Sphyrna zagaena hammerhead shark
 Spariformes - Sparidae
Dentex sp. Cuvier 1815
 Spatangoida - Schizasteridae