Natural Chimneys (Pleistocene of the United States)

Also known as Brown's Cave, Cave of the Wooden Steps

Where: Augusta County, Virginia (38.4° N, 79.1° W: paleocoordinates 38.4° N, 79.1° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

Environment/lithology: cave; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: A. Wetmore. 1962. Notes on fossil and subfossil birds. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 145(2):1-17 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 82258: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 25.07.2008, edited by Margaret Shalap

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• added Guilday, Semken, Hubbard and Grady by Carrie Cross Bio 334
unclassified
  -
Gastropoda
 Cycloneritimorpha - Helicinidae
  - Polygyridae
 Pulmonata - Discidae
 Pulmonata - Gastrocoptidae
 Pulmonata - Endodontidae
 Basommatophora - Physidae
 Basommatophora - Lymnaeidae
 Valvatoidea - Valvatidae
Valvata sp.1 Müller 1774 snail
Osteichthyes
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
"Scaphiopus holbrooki" = Scaphiopus (Scaphiopus) holbrooki1
"Scaphiopus holbrooki" = Scaphiopus (Scaphiopus) holbrooki1 Harlan 1835 Eastern spadefoot toad
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 frog
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla sp.1 Laurenti 1768 tree frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo sp.1 Laurenti 1768 toad
 Caudata - Urodela
"Ambystoma sp." = Amblystoma1, Desmognathus sp.1
"Ambystoma sp." = Amblystoma1 Tschudi 1838 mole salamander
Desmognathus sp.1 Baird 1850 lungless salamander
Reptilia
 Testudines - Panchelydridae
Chelydra serpentina1 Linnaeus 1758 Common snapping turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Terrapene carolina1 Linnaeus 1758 common box turtle
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
"Erolia minutilla" = Calidris minutilla, Bartramia longicauda, "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus" = Tringa semipalmata, "Philohela minor" = Scolopax minor
"Erolia minutilla" = Calidris minutilla Viellot 1816 least sandpiper
Bartramia longicauda Bechstein 1812 upland sandpiper
"Catoptrophorus semipalmatus" = Tringa semipalmata Gmelin 1789 willet
"Philohela minor" = Scolopax minor Gmelin 1789 American woodcock
 Charadriiformes - Charadriidae
Charadrius vociferus1 Linnaeus 1758 killdeer
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
"Canachites canadensis" = Falcipennis canadensis, Meleagris gallopavo, Bonasa umbellus, "Pedioecetes phasianellus" = Tympanuchus phasianellus1
"Canachites canadensis" = Falcipennis canadensis Linnaeus 1758 spruce grouse
Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
originally entered as "Melagris gallopavo"
Bonasa umbellus Linnaeus 1766 ruffed grouse
"Pedioecetes phasianellus" = Tympanuchus phasianellus1 Linnaeus 1758 sharp-tailed grouse
 Galliformes - Odontophoridae
Colinus virginianus Linnaeus 1758 northern bobwhite
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Oxyura jamaicensis Gmelin 1789 ruddy duck
"Anas discors" = Spatula discors Linnaeus 1766 blue-winged teal
Bucephala albeola Linnaeus 1758 bufflehead
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Ectopistes migratorius Linnaeus 1758 passenger pigeon
 Piciformes - Picidae
"Centurus carolinus" = Melanerpes carolinus, Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Colaptes auratus, "Dendrocopos pubescens" = Picoides pubescens
"Centurus carolinus" = Melanerpes carolinus Linnaeus 1758 red-bellied woodpecker
Melanerpes erythrocephalus Linnaeus 1758 red-headed woodpecker
Colaptes auratus Linnaeus 1758 northern flicker
"Dendrocopos pubescens" = Picoides pubescens Linnaeus 1766 downy woodpecker
 Coraciiformes - Alcedinidae
Megaceryle alcyon Linnaeus 1758 belted kingfisher
 Passeriformes - Mimidae
Toxostoma rufum Linnaeus 1758 brown thrasher
 Passeriformes - Icteridae
Agelaius phoeniceus Linnaeus 1766 red-winged blackbird
Molothrus ater1 Boddaert 1783 brown-headed cowbird
 Passeriformes - Sittidae
Sitta canadensis Linnaeus 1766 red-breasted nuthatch
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Perisoreus canadensis Linnaeus 1766 Canada jay
Pica pica1 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian magpie
Cyanocitta cristata1 Linnaeus 1758 blue jay
 Passeriformes - Hirundinidae
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot 1816 cliff swallow
 Passeriformes - Tyrannidae
Contopus virens1 Linnaeus 1766 eastern wood-pewee
Sayornis phoebe Latham 1790 eastern phoebe
 Passeriformes - Passerellidae
Junco sp. Wagler 1831 junco
Passerella iliaca Merrem 1786 fox sparrow
Zonotrichia albicollis Gmelin 1789 white-throated sparrow
Melospiza melodia Wilson 1810 song sparrow
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
Turdus migratorius Linnaeus 1758 American robin
Hylocichla sp.1 Baird 1864 thrush
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
Grus americana Linnaeus 1758 whooping crane
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipiter striatus Vieillot 1897 sharp-shinned hawk
Buteo platypterus Vieillot 1823 broad-winged hawk
Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin 1788 red-tailed hawk
Buteo lineatus Gmelin 1788 red-shouldered hawk
Reptilia
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Sceloporus undulatus1 Bosc 1802 eastern fence lizard
 Squamata - Colubridae
Diadophis sp.1 Baird and Girard 1853 ringneck snake
Haldea sp.1 Baird and Girard 1853 colubrid snake
Storeria sp.1 Baird and Girard 1853 brown snake
Elaphe sp.1 Wagler 1833 colubrid snake
Elaphe cf. guttata1 Linnaeus 1766 corn snake
Opheodrys sp.1 Fitzinger 1843 colubrid snake
Coluber constrictor1 Linnaeus 1758 black racer
Carphophis amoenus1 Say worm snake
Thamnophis sirtalis1 Linnaeus garter snake
Natrix sp.1 Laurenti 1768 water snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalus horridus1 Linnaeus 1758 timber rattlesnake
Crotalus cf. adamanteus1 Palisot de Beauvois 1799 eastern diamondback rattlesnake
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Neotoma floridana1 Ord 1818 eastern woodrat
Ondatra zibethicus1 Linnaeus 1766 muskrat
Synaptomys cooperi1 Baird 1858 southern bog lemming
Phenacomys intermedius2 Merriam 1889 western heather vole
Clethrionomys gapperi1 Vigors 1830 southern red-backed vole
Microtus sp.1 Schrank 1798 vole
"Pitymys pinetorum" = Microtus pinetorum1 Le Conte 1830 woodland vole
"Microtus pinetorum" = Microtus pinetorum2 Le Conte 1830 woodland vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus1 Ord 1815 meadow vole
Microtus xanthognathus1 Leach 1815 taiga vole
Microtus chrotorrhinus1 Miller 1894 rock vole
Peromyscus sp.1 Gloger 1841 deer mouse
Peromyscus cf. maniculatus1 Wagner 1843 deer mouse
Peromyscus cf. leucopus1 Rafinesque 1818 white-footed mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciurus carolinensis1 Gmelin 1788 eastern gray squirrel
"Citellus cf. tridecemlineatus" = Spermophilus1 ground squirrel
Spermophilus tridecemlineatus2 Mitchell 1821 thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Marmota monax1 Linnaeus 1758 groundhog
Tamias striatus1 Linnaeus 1758 eastern chipmunk
Glaucomys volans1 Linnaeus 1758 southern flying squirrel
Glaucomys sabrinus1 Shaw 1801 northern flying squirrel
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus2 Erxleben 1777 American red squirrel
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor canadensis1 Kuhl 1820 American beaver
Castoroides ohioensis1 Foster 1838 giant beaver
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
Erethizon dorsatum1 Linnaeus 1758 North American porcupine
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Napaeozapus insignis1, "Zapus hudsonicus" = Zapus hudsonius1
Napaeozapus insignis1 Miller 1891 woodland jumping mouse
"Zapus hudsonicus" = Zapus hudsonius1 Zimmermann 1780 meadow jumping mouse
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus americanus1 Erxleben 1777 snowshoe hare
Sylvilagus sp.1 Gray 1867 cottontail rabbit
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Condylura cristata1 Linnaeus 1758 star-nosed mole
Parascalops breweri1 Bachman 1842 hairly-tailed vole
Scalopus aquaticus1 Linnaeus 1758 eastern mole
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex cf. cinereus1 Kerr 1792 cinereus shrew
Sorex palustris1 Richardson 1828 American water shrew
Sorex arcticus1 Kerr 1792 arctic shrew
Sorex fumeus1 Miller 1895 smoky shrew
"Microsorex hoyi" = Sorex hoyi1 Baird 1858 American pygmy shrew
Blarina brevicauda1 Say 1823 northern short-tailed shrew
Cryptotis parva1 Say 1823 North American least shrew
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus cf. americanus1 Pallas 1780 black bear
 Carnivora - Mephitidae
Mephitis mephitis1 Schreber 1776 striped skunk
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon lotor1 Linnaeus 1758 raccoon
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
"Mustela vison" = Neovison vison1, "Martes americana" = Mustela zibellina americana1, "Mustela cf. rixosa" = Mustela nivalis1, Mustela cf. frenata1, "Martes cf. pennanti" = Pekania pennanti1
"Mustela vison" = Neovison vison1 Schreber 1777 mink
"Martes americana" = Mustela zibellina americana1 Kerr 1792 American marten
"Mustela cf. rixosa" = Mustela nivalis1 Linnaeus 1766 least weasel
Mustela cf. frenata1 Lichtenstein 1831 long-tailed weasel
"Martes cf. pennanti" = Pekania pennanti1 Erxleben 1777 fisher
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes sp.1 Frisch 1775 fox
Canis cf. lupus1 Linnaeus 1758 gray wolf
 Carnivora - Felidae
Lynx sp.1 Kerr 1792 lynx
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Lasiurus cf. borealis1 Muller 1776 hairy-tailed bat
Myotis cf. lucifugus1 Le Conte 1831 vesper bat
Myotis keenii1 Merriam 1895 vesper bat
Pipistrellus subflavus1 Cuvier 1832 eastern pipistrelle bat
Eptesicus sp.1 Rafinesque 1820 house bat
"Eptesicus cf. fuscus" = Eptesicus fuscus1 Beauvois 1796 big brown bat
"Eptesicus cf. grandis" = Eptesicus fuscus1 Beauvois 1796 big brown bat
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus sp.1 Cope 1869 peccary
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervidae indet.1 Gray 1821 deer
Odocoileus virginianus1 Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer