Mokapu Point, Oahu (Pleistocene to of the United States)

Also known as Reef 3971

Where: Hawaii (21.5° N, 157.7° W: paleocoordinates 21.4° N, 157.7° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Waimanalo Formation, Middle Pleistocene to Middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.0 Ma)

• age of 134-119 ka at Alala Point (S of Mokapu) and 121-113 ka at Kahuku Point (N of Mokapu)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: reef, buildup or bioherm; limestone

• reef and near-reef deposits
• limestones and conglomerates

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: D. R. Muhs, K. R. Simmons, and B. Steinke. 2002. Timing and warmth of the Last Interglacial period: new U-series evidence from Hawaii and Bermuda and a new fossil compilation for North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 21:1355-1383 [W. Kiessling/U. Merkel]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 89294: authorized by Wolfgang Kiessling, entered by Uta Merkel on 14.05.2009

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Bivalvia
 Arcida - Arcidae
Acar plicata2 Dillwyn 1817 miniature ark
[entered as Acar plicatum]
Arca ventricosa2 Lamarck 1819 ark
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Spondylus mimus2 Olsson 1931 scallop
Chlamys cookei2 Kellum 1926 scallop
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea retusa2 Sowerby 1871 oyster
 Ostreida - Malleidae
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
"Septifer vaughani" = Septifer (Septifer) excisus2 Weigmann 1837 mussel
 Cardiida - Gastrochaenidae
"Rocellaria hawaiensis" = Gastrochaena (Rocellaria)2
"Rocellaria hawaiensis" = Gastrochaena (Rocellaria)2 clam
 Cardiida - Trapezidae
"Trapezium californicus" = Trapezium oblongum2
"Trapezium californicus" = Trapezium oblongum2 Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cardiida - Chamidae
"Chama iostoma" = Chama limbula2
"Chama iostoma" = Chama limbula2 Lamarck 1819 jewel box
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Periglypta reticulata2 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
Scutarcopagia scobinata2 Linnaeus 1758 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Semelidae
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Ctena bella2 Conrad 1837 clam
Gastropoda
 Ptenoglossa - Thaididae
 Patellogastropoda - Nacellidae
Cellana exarata2 Nuttall 1839 limpet
 Opisthobranchia - Bullidae
 Opisthobranchia - Haminoeidae
 Triphoroidea - Triphoridae
"Mastonia cingulifera" = Triphora (Mastonia)2
"Mastonia cingulifera" = Triphora (Mastonia)2 snail
 Triphoroidea - Cerithiopsidae
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva sandwicensis2 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Pisania ignea2 true whelk
Pisania marmorata2 true whelk
Nassa francolinus2 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassarius pictus2, "Zeuxis hirtus" = Nassarius (Zeuxis)2
"Zeuxis hirtus" = Nassarius (Zeuxis)2 snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitra ambigua2 mitre shell
Mitra astricta2 mitre shell
Mitra brunnea2 mitre shell
Mitra crassa2 mitre shell
Mitra limbifera2 mitre shell
Mitra lutea2 mitre shell
Mitra pellisserpentis2 mitre shell
Mitra stictica2 mitre shell
Mitra tabanula2 mitre shell
Mitra litterata2 Lamarck 1811 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Costellariidae
"Pusia aureolata" = Vexillum (Pusia)2, "Pusia consanguinea" = Vexillum (Pusia)2, "Pusia nodosa" = Vexillum (Pusia)2, "Pusia semifasciata" = Vexillum (Pusia)2
"Pusia aureolata" = Vexillum (Pusia)2 ribbed mitre
"Pusia consanguinea" = Vexillum (Pusia)2 ribbed mitre
"Pusia nodosa" = Vexillum (Pusia)2 ribbed mitre
"Pusia semifasciata" = Vexillum (Pusia)2 ribbed mitre
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
 Neogastropoda - Harpidae
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
 Neogastropoda - Raphitomidae
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus abbreviatus2 cone shell
Conus geographus2 cone shell
Conus nanus2 cone shell
Conus obscura2 cone shell
Conus plicarius2 cone shell
Conus praelatus2 cone shell
Conus sponsalis2 cone shell
Conus kahiko n. sp.1 cone shell
Conus ebraeus2 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
Conus imperialis2 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
Conus nussatella2 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
Conus tulipa2 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
Conus flavidus2 Lamarck 1810 cone shell
Conus rattus2 Hwass in Bruguiére 1792 cone shell
Conus catus2 Hwass in Bruguiére 1792 cone shell
Conus lividus2 Bruguière 1792 cone shell
"Conus auratus" = Conus aulicus2 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
Conus chaldaeus2 Röding 1798 cone shell
Conus striatus2 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
"Conus vitulinus" = Conus planorbis2 Born 1778 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra cerithina2 auger snail
subsp. spaldingi
Terebra chlorata2 auger snail
Terebra crenulata2 auger snail
Terebra felina2 auger snail
Terebra flavescens2 auger snail
Terebra peasei2 auger snail
Terebra affinis2 Gray 1834 auger snail
Hastula confusa2 auger snail
Hastula verreauxi2 auger snail
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
"Strombus mutabilis" = Canarium mutabile2, "Strombus maculatus" = Strombus (Canarium) maculatus2, "Lambis chiragra" = Harpago chiragra2
"Strombus mutabilis" = Canarium mutabile2 Swainson 1821 true conch
subsp. ostergaardi
"Strombus maculatus" = Strombus (Canarium) maculatus2 Jay 1839 true conch
"Lambis chiragra" = Harpago chiragra2 Linnaeus 1758 conch
 Littorinoidea - Littorinidae
Littoraria pintado2 periwinkle
 Vanikoroidea - Vanikoridae
 Vanikoroidea - Hipponicidae
Cheilea dillwyni2 hoof shell
Cheilea cicatricosa2 hoof shell
"Pilosabia pilosa" = Hipponix (Pilosabia)2 hoof shell
Antisabia foliacea2 Quoy and Gaimard 1834 hoof shell
 Velutinoidea - Triviidae
"Erato sandwicensis" = Proterato (Sulcerato) sandwichensis2, "Trivia insecta" = Trivirostra hordacea2, "Trivia pellucidula" = Trivirostra pellucidula2
"Erato sandwicensis" = Proterato (Sulcerato) sandwichensis2 Sowerby 1859 snail
"Trivia insecta" = Trivirostra hordacea2 Kiener 1843 snail
"Trivia pellucidula" = Trivirostra pellucidula2 Gaskoin 1846 snail
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica lurida2 moon snail
Polinices opaca2 moon snail
 Cypraeoidea - Cypraeidae
"Cypraea isabella" = Luria isabella2, "Cypraea tessellata" = Luria tessellata2, Cypraea schilderorum2, "Cypraea carneola" = Lyncina carneola2, "Cypraea leviathan" = Lyncina leviathan2, "Cypraea maculifera" = Mauritia maculifera2, "Cypraea talpa" = Talparia talpa2, "Cypraea cicercula" = Pustularia cicercula2, "Cypraea granulata" = Staphylaea granulata2, "Cypraea erosa" = Naria erosa2, "Cypraea caputserpentis" = Cypraea (Erosaria) caputserpentis2, "Cypraea helvola" = Cypraea (Erosaria) helvola2, "Cypraea fimbriata" = Cypraea (Purpuradusta) fimbriata2, "Cypraea teres" = Talostolida teres2, "Cypraea gaskoini" = Cribrarula gaskoini2
"Cypraea isabella" = Luria isabella2 Linnaeus 1758 Isabell cowry
"Cypraea tessellata" = Luria tessellata2 Swainson 1822 cowry
Cypraea schilderorum2 Iredale 1939 cowry
"Cypraea carneola" = Lyncina carneola2 Linnaeus 1758 purple-mouthed cowry
"Cypraea leviathan" = Lyncina leviathan2 Schilder and Schilder 1937 cowry
"Cypraea maculifera" = Mauritia maculifera2 Schilder 1932 cowry
"Cypraea talpa" = Talparia talpa2 Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea cicercula" = Pustularia cicercula2 Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea granulata" = Staphylaea granulata2 Pease 1862 cowry
"Cypraea erosa" = Naria erosa2 Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea caputserpentis" = Cypraea (Erosaria) caputserpentis2 Linnaeus 1758 cowry
listed as C. captoserpentis
"Cypraea helvola" = Cypraea (Erosaria) helvola2 Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea fimbriata" = Cypraea (Purpuradusta) fimbriata2 Gmelin 1791 cowry
"Cypraea teres" = Talostolida teres2 Gmelin 1791 cowry
"Cypraea gaskoini" = Cribrarula gaskoini2 Reeve 1846 cowry
 Vermetoidea - Vermetidae
Dendropoma maximus2 worm shell
Vermetus sp.2 Daudin 1800 worm shell
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
"Crepidula gravispinosa" = Crepidula (Bostrycapulus) gravispinosus2
"Crepidula gravispinosa" = Crepidula (Bostrycapulus) gravispinosus2 Kuroda and Habe 1950 slipper shell
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
"Cymatium pileare" = Monoplex pilearis2
"Cymatium pileare" = Monoplex pilearis2 Linnaeus 1758 triton shell
 Tonnoidea - Tonnidae
Tonna perdix2 tun shell
 Tonnoidea - Bursidae
Tutufa bubo2 frog shell
Bursa bufonia2 Gmelin 1791 frog shell
Bursa corrugata2 Perry 1811 frog shell
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
 Rissooidea - Rissoidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Plesiotrochidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
Clypeomorus obeliscus2, "Ochetoclava articulata" = Rhinoclavis (Ochetoclava)2, "Semivertagus atromarginatum" = Clava (Semivertagus)2, "Semivertagus nesioticus" = Clava (Semivertagus)2, Liocerithium thaanumi2
Clypeomorus obeliscus2 cerith snail
"Ochetoclava articulata" = Rhinoclavis (Ochetoclava)2 cerith snail
listed as Ochetoclavis articulata
"Semivertagus atromarginatum" = Clava (Semivertagus)2 cerith snail
"Semivertagus nesioticus" = Clava (Semivertagus)2 cerith snail
Liocerithium thaanumi2 cerith snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Modulidae
"Aplodon tectus" = Modulus tectum2
"Aplodon tectus" = Modulus tectum2 Gmelin 1791 snail
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
 Pyramidelloidea - Scaphandridae
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
"Marmorostoma intercostalium" = Turbo (Marmarostoma) intercostalis2
"Marmorostoma intercostalium" = Turbo (Marmarostoma) intercostalis2 Menke 1829 snail
 Fissurelloidea - Fissurellidae
Diodora granifera2 Pease 1861 snail
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Trochus sandwichensis2 Souleyet 1852 top snail
Anthozoa
 Scleractinia - Poritidae
Porites sp. Link 1807 stony coral