Esmeraldas Formation (Pliocene of Ecuador)

Where: Ecuador (1.0° N, 79.8° W: paleocoordinates 0.8° N, 79.0° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• basin-level geographic resolution

When: Esmeraldas Formation, Zanclean (5.3 - 3.6 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From the Esmeraldas Fm, which regionally overlies the Borbon Fm (Middle-Late Miocene). AGE: Zanclean, on the basis of microfossil biostratigraphy. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: Collection is representative for entire formation.

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: deep-water; unlithified, bioturbated, tuffaceous, green mudstone

• ENVIRONMENT: Microplanktonic fauna is fairly diverse, which sug- gests water depths in excess of 200 m. The benthonic fora- minifera suggest depths in the 240 to 900-m range. The mol- luscan fauna contains many discrepancies, in the combined presence of shoal-water and deep-water forms. Olsson (1964), strongly influenced by the presence of the "unusual" deep- water species, estimated the depth at 200 fathoms or 365 m. Rosenberg (1981) plotted a histogram of depth distributions, which peaked at 64 m.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Greenish tuffaceous mudstone, containing interbeds of white volcanic ash, graded sand, and in some places graded shell debris. LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, as stated in text.

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: trace

Collection methods: COLLECTOR: Multiple workers. REPOSITORY: Multiple repositories, not stated.

Primary reference: P. F. Hasson and A. G. Fischer. 1986. Observations on the Neogene of Northwestern Ecuador. Micropaleontology 32(1):32-42 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 90857: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 19.08.2009

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Limited to charactersitic or unusual macrofossils and ichnofossils. NOMENCLATURE: Not an authoritative publication, and with genus-resolution identifications.
 Scleractinia - Flabellidae
Flabellum sp. Lesson 1831 stony coral
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
 Neotaenioglossa - Calyptraeidae
Crucibulum (Crucibulum) spinosum4 Conrad 1855 slipper shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cassidae
Dalium sp. Dall 1889 snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
"Cancellaria (Charcolleria) terryi" = Massyla terryi3, "Massyla terryi" = Massyla terryi1
"Cancellaria (Charcolleria) terryi" = Massyla terryi3 Olsson 1942 snail
"Massyla terryi" = Massyla terryi1 Olsson 1942 snail
 Neogastropoda - Cochlespiridae
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Typhis (Talityphis) alatus" = Typhina alata2
"Typhis (Talityphis) alatus" = Typhina alata2 Sowerby 1850 murex snail
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
"Dentalium (Fissidentalium) granadanum" = Fissidentalium granadanum4
"Dentalium (Fissidentalium) granadanum" = Fissidentalium granadanum4 Anderson 1929 tusk shell
SUBSPECIES: Dentalium (Fissidentalium) granadanum esmeraldum
 Arcida - Limopsidae
Limopsis sp. Sassi 1827 clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Lucinoma chiripanica5 Olsson 1942 clam
Asteroidea indet. de Blainville 1830 sea star
Echinoidea indet. Leske 1778 sea urchin
 Ichnofossils -
Chondrites sp. von Sternberg 1833
Zoophycos (Spirophyton) sp. Massalongo 1855