Williams Cave (Unknown Levels) (Pleistocene to of the United States)

Where: Culberson County, Texas (31.9° N, 104.9° W: paleocoordinates 31.9° N, 104.7° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Pleistocene to Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.0 Ma)

• "The top three feet of deposit had been thoroughly dug away except in small areas" and apart from certain Pleistocene taxa (see collection 93257) the stratigraphic position of the fauna is unclear and may include both Pleistocene and Holocene material

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; rubbly siltstone

• "Portions of the roof have fallen... so that rocks and spalls were intermingled with the very fine dust that covered the floor of the cave"; there is a thick "layer of caliche, limestone and gypsum" across the entrance of the cave but it is not fossiliferous

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by M. Y. Ayer, R. G. L. Ayer, W. Beal in 1935; reposited in the ANSP

Collection methods: quarrying,

• Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia collection

•most of the archaeological material including three "Heuco Cave Dweller" burials was removed in 1934 from "18 inches below the surface," followed by the faunal material in 1935 from depths of up to seven feet

•collectors include "Mr. and Mrs. Richard G. L. Ayer," presumable meaning Ayer and her husband

Primary reference: M. Y. Ayer. 1936. The archaeological and faunal material from Williams Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 88:599-618 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 93258: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 10.01.2010

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Iguanidae indet. Oppel 1811 squamates
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Neotoma albigula Hartley 1894 white-throated woodrat
"N. albigula albigula"
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
"Citellus grammurus" = Spermophilus variegatus Erxleben 1777 rock squirrel
"C. grammurus grammurus"
Cynomys gunnisoni Baird 1855 Gunnison's prairie dog
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Cratogeomys castanops Baird 1852 yellow-faced pocket gopher
"C. castanops castanops"
 Rodentia - Heteromyidae
"Perognathus intermedius" = Chaetodipus intermedius
"Perognathus intermedius" = Chaetodipus intermedius Merriam 1889 rock pocket mouse
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
"Erethizon epixanthum" = Erethizon dorsatum
"Erethizon epixanthum" = Erethizon dorsatum Linnaeus 1758 North American porcupine
"E. epixanthum epixanthum"
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus californicus, "Sylvilagus auduboni" = Sylvilagus audubonii
Lepus californicus Gray 1837 black-tailed jackrabbit
"L. californicus texianus"
"Sylvilagus auduboni" = Sylvilagus audubonii Baird 1858 desert cottontail
 Carnivora - Ursidae
"Ursus horribilis" = Ursus arctos
"Ursus horribilis" = Ursus arctos Linnaeus 1758 brown bear
 Carnivora - Canidae
Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber 1775 gray fox
"U. cinereoargenteus scotti"
 Carnivora - Felidae
Lynx rufus Schreber 1777 bobcat
"L. rufus baileyi"
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Ovis canadensis Shaw 1804 bighorn sheep
"O. canadensis texianus"
 Ungulata - Cervidae
"Cervus merriami" = Cervus elaphus Linnaeus 1758 red deer
Odocoileus hemionus Rafinesque 1817 mule deer
"O. hemionus macrotis"
Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
"O. virginianus macrourus"
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Antilocapra americana Ord 1815 pronghorn
"A. americana americana"